1. Medicine
  2. Anatomy
  3. 1 before a cell divides its dna must be replicated...

Question: 1 before a cell divides its dna must be replicated...

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1. Before a cell divides, its DNA must be replicated to:

A.

provide a backup copy of DNA in case the original DNA is damaged during mitosis.

B.

replace the DNA lost during transcription.

C.

supply each new cell with a full set of the genetic material.

D.

replace genetic instructions used by the original cell.

E.

use as an energy source during cytokinesis.

2. In which of the heart chambers listed below would you find oxygenated blood?

A.

The left ventricle 

B.

Both atria

C.

Both ventricles 

D.

The right ventricle

E.

All of the above

3. Where would you find deoxygenated blood?

A.

Pulmonary artery

 

B.

Pulmonary vein

 

C.

Left side of the heart

D.

Pulmonary trunk 

 

E.

In both (A) and (D)

4. How would you describe the relative position of the nose on the human head compared to the ears?

A.

Medial

B.

Anterior and medial

C.

Posterior and superficial

D.

Anterior and lateral

E.

Deep

5. Which statement is TRUE regarding positive feedback mechanisms?

A.

They are the same as negative feedback mechanisms

B.

The response acts to enhance the change in the body system

C.

They allow blood pressure to vary within normal limits

D.

They are responsible for body temperature control

E.

The response acts to reverse the change in the body system

6. Which of the following best describes the direction of sensory messages in our nervous system?

A.

They always go toward the central nervous system

B.

They are incoming messages

C.

The messages are afferent, incoming and always go towards the central nervous system

D.

They are afferent messages

E.

They are afferent and incoming messsages

7. Our parasympathetic nervous system controls which of the following?

A.

All our leg muscles

B.

Voluntary movement

C.

Preparing for confrontational situations

D.

Preparation for stressful situations

E.

Various body functions at rest

8. Which direction does a nerve impulse always travel within a single nerve cell?

A.

Always away from the Central Nervous system

B.

From the terminal end to the dendrite end and then back from the dendrite end to the terminal end

C.

From the terminal end to the dendrite end

D.

From the dendrite end to the terminal end

E.

Always in towards the Central Nervous system

9. What does depolarisation mean?

A.

Movement of substances down their concentration gradient

B.

Positively and negatively charged particles attracting each other

C.

Movement of substances against their concentration gradient

D.

Reversing the electrical charge across the cell membrane

E.

Loss of bone density

10. Cardiovascular function is an example of

A.

histophysiology.

B.

organ physiology.

C.

systemic physiology.

D.

pathological physiology.

E.

physiological chemistry.

11.

 

Case Study 1: Wendy, a 63-year-old singer, underwent an operation to remove a lump from her breast. After her surgery, she was notable to take fluids by mouth for 36 hours. To ensure that she did not dehydrate during this time, she received intravenous isotonic saline, which was delivered directly into a vein in her forearm.

Question: What might happen to the red blood cells in Wendy's blood if you gave her a hypotonic fluid?

A.

Intravenous administration of a hypotonic solution will be suitable in Wendy's condition. 

B.

Intravenous administration of a hypotonic solution could cause the red blood cells in Wendy's blood to swell and even burst.

C.

Intravenous administration of a hypotonic solution could cause the red blood cells in Wendy's blood to lose water and shrink.

D.

Intravenous administration of a hypotonic solution could cause the red blood cells in Wendy's blood without losing or gaining water. 

E.

Intravenous administration of a hypotonic solution could cause the red blood cells in Wendy's blood to get better.

12.

Case Study 1: Wendy, a 63-year-old singer, underwent an operation to remove a lump from her breast. After her surgery, she was notable to take fluids by mouth for 36 hours. To ensure that she did not dehydrate during this time, she received intravenous isotonic saline, which was delivered directly into a vein in her forearm.

Question: What is an isotonic solution?

A.

An isotonic solution contains the higher concentration of non-diffusible solutes as the cytosol within a cell.

B.

An isotonic solution contains the lower concentration of non-diffusible solutes as the cytosol within a cell.

C.

An isotonic solution contains the different concentration of non-diffusible solutes as the cytosol within a cell.

D.

An isotonic solution contains the same concentration of non-diffusible solutes as the cytosol within a cell.

E.

An isotonic solution contains the unequal amount of concentration of non-diffusible solutes as the cytosol within a cell.

13.

 

Case Study 1: Wendy, a 63-year-old singer, underwent an operation to remove a lump from her breast. After her surgery, she was notable to take fluids by mouth for 36 hours. To ensure that she did not dehydrate during this time, she received intravenous isotonic saline, which was delivered directly into a vein in her forearm.

Question: What is osmosis? 

 

A.

Osmosis is a form of active transport across a selectively permeable membrane, such as the plasma membrane of a cell. It is often described as the movement of water, or another solvent, across a selectively permeable membrane, from a region of high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration.

B.

Osmosis is a form of passive transport across a selectively permeable membrane, such as the plasma membrane of a cell. It is often described as the movement of water, or another solvent, across a selectively permeable membrane, from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration.

C.

Osmosis is a form of active transport across a selectively permeable membrane, such as the plasma membrane of a cell. It is often described as the movement of solutes, across a selectively permeable membrane, from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration.

D.

Osmosis is a form of passive transport across a selectively permeable membrane, such as the plasma membrane of a cell. It is often described as the movement of water, or another solvent, across a selectively permeable membrane, from a region of high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration.

E.

Osmosis is a form of exchange transport across a selectively permeable membrane, such as the plasma membrane of a cell. It is often described as the movement of water, or another solvent, across a selectively permeable membrane, from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration.

14.

Case Study 1: Wendy, a 63-year-old singer, underwent an operation to remove a lump from her breast. After her surgery, she was notable to take fluids by mouth for 36 hours. To ensure that she did not dehydrate during this time, she received intravenous isotonic saline, which was delivered directly into a vein in her forearm.

Question: What is an hypotonic solution?

A.

A hypotonic solution contains a same concentration of non-diffusible solutes compared to the cytosol within a cell.

B.

A hypotonic solution contains a same concentration of diffusible solutes compared to the cytosol within a cell.

C.

A hypotonic solution contains a same concentration as the isotonic solution of non-diffusible solutes.

D.

A hypotonic solution contains a higher concentration of non-diffusible solutes compared to the cytosol within a cell.

E.

A hypotonic solution contains a lower concentration of non-diffusible solutes compared to the cytosol within a cell.

15.

 

Case Study 1: Wendy, a 63-year-old singer, underwent an operation to remove a lump from her breast. After her surgery, she was notable to take fluids by mouth for 36 hours. To ensure that she did not dehydrate during this time, she received intravenous isotonic saline, which was delivered directly into a vein in her forearm.

Question: Based on the principles of osmosis, would you want to give an isotonic solution to Wendy?

 

A.

Yes, intravenous fluids must be isotonic to prevent the cells from losing or gaining water.

B.

Yes, because the solution that gives to Wendy needs to have the different concentration as the cytosol within Wendy's cells, in order to provide movement of water into, or out of the cells.

C.

No, intravenous fluids must not be isotonic because it prevents the cells from losing or gaining water.

D.

No, intravenous fluids must not be isotonic which should be replaced by hypertonic solution.

E.

There is no need for specific type of solution. As long as, there is fluid replacement which will be adequate. 

16. Which statement is TRUE regarding diffusion of gases in a normal lung?

A.

Carbon dioxide moves out of the blood stream into our airways

B.

Carbon dioxide moves out of our airways into the blood stream

C.

Oxygen moves out of our blood stream into our airways

D.

Carbon dioxide is not involved in the process at all

E.

Oxygen makes up most of the atmospheric (dry) air

17. Which of the following statement(s) is TRUE?

A.

Secondary bronchi are distal to primary bronchi

B.

Primary bronchi are distal to secondary bronchi

C.

Primary bronchi are smaller than secondary bronchi

D.

Primary bronchi are smaller than secondary bronchi and they are distal to secondary bronchi

E.

There are three primary bronchi in the human respiratory system

18. In terms of basic chemistry, what is a “solution”?

A.

The same as the solvent

B.

A solid substance

C.

The combinaton of the solute and the solvent

D.

The same as the solute

E.

The liquid substance

19. Select an answer from the list below to complete this sentence: Once proteins are modified and packaged, they leave the cell via the process of _______________.

A.

Exocytosis

B.

Ribosomes

C.

Neurotransmission

D.

Endocytosis

E.

Synthesis

20.

 

Case Study 4: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an auto-immune neurological condition of the Central Nervous System (CNS), in which the body’s immune system begins to recognise myelin as a foreign substance and destroys it. The loss of myelin can make it hard for the brain to send and receive signals to and from the rest of the body.


Question:  If MS is a condition of the CNS, the myelin of neurons located in which areas can be destroyed?

  1. Brain
  2. Nerves of the legs
  3. Ganglia
  4. All Cranial Nerves
  5. Spinal Cord
A.

1, 3, & 5

B.

1 & 5

C.

1 & 4

D.

2 & 3

E.

1, 4 & 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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