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Question: 1 case study 6 heather a 62yearold artist went to...

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1.

Case Study 6: Heather, a 62-year-old artist, went to see her doctor as she had been feeling tired and unwell, had swollen ankles, andhad gained 5 kg in a week. Heather informed the doctor that she had been taking ibuprofen for 5 weeks following a painful injury to her knee. The doctor noted that Heather was taking a diuretic for her high blood pressure and suspected that, combined with the ibuprofen, had caused acute renal failure (injury). Blood tests revealed Heather had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 25 ml/min (normal range > 90 ml/min) is  and other signs of acute renal failure.

Questions: What is the glomerulus and glomerular capsule (renalcorpuscle)?

"The glomerulus is a compact ball of _____________ that is surrounded by the glomerular capsule, also know as _____________. The space between the layers is the capsular space."

A.

arterioles; Bowman's capsule  

B.

capillaries; Bowman's capsule 

C.

arterioles; Cortical capsule   

D.

cappillaries; Cortical capsule    

E.

arterioles; Fibrous capsule    

2.

Case Study 6: Heather, a 62-year-old artist, went to see her doctor as she had been feeling tired and unwell, had swollen ankles, andhad gained 5 kg in a week. Heather informed the doctor that she had been taking ibuprofen for 5 weeks following a painful injury to her knee. The doctor noted that Heather was taking a diuretic for her high blood pressure and suspected that, combined with the ibuprofen, had caused acute renal failure (injury). Blood tests revealed Heather had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 25 ml/min (normal range > 90 ml/min) is  and other signs of acute renal failure.

Questions: Heather's blood are likely to be changed given that she has kidney damage?

"Due to the damage to her kidneys, Heather is likely to have (i) altered blood pH (pH will ___________ as the kidney excretes hydrogen ions), (ii) altered ionic composition of the blood, (iii) _________ levels of waste products (e.g.,urea and creatine), and (iv) low erythropoietin levels leading to anaemia or low blood cell production."

A.

  increase; increase

B.

decrease; decrease

C.

increase; decrease

D.

decrease; increase

E.

normal; same

3.

Case Study 6: Heather, a 62-year-old artist, went to see her doctor as she had been feeling tired and unwell, had swollen ankles, andhad gained 5 kg in a week. Heather informed the doctor that she had been taking ibuprofen for 5 weeks following a painful injury to her knee. The doctor noted that Heather was taking a diuretic for her high blood pressure and suspected that, combined with the ibuprofen, had caused acute renal failure (injury). Blood tests revealed Heather had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 25 ml/min (normal range > 90 ml/min) is  and other signs of acute renal failure.

Questions: What will be the effect of Heather's GFR of 25 ml/min onher kidney function and on the levels of unwantedsubstances in her blood?

A.

Heather's GFR is low. A low GFR will lead to a slower flow of fluid through the renal tubules and therefore a greater reabsorption of filtrate and unwanted substances. Overall, there will be increase clearance of unwanted substances from her blood.

B.

Heather's GFR is low. A low GFR will lead to a slower flow of fluid through the renal tubules and therefore a greater reabsorption of filtrate and unwanted substances. Overall, there will be less clearance of unwanted substances from her blood.

C.

Heather's GFR is low. A low GFR will lead to a slower flow of fluid through the renal tubules and therefore a greater reabsorption of filtrate and unwanted substances. Overall, there will be same among of clearance of unwanted substances from her blood.

D.

Heather's GFR is low. A low GFR will lead to a increase flow of fluid through the renal tubules and therefore a decrease reabsorption of filtrate and unwanted substances. Overall, there will be increase clearance of unwanted substances from her blood.

E.

None of the options given is valid.

4.

Case Study 6: Heather, a 62-year-old artist, went to see her doctor as she had been feeling tired and unwell, had swollen ankles, andhad gained 5 kg in a week. Heather informed the doctor that she had been taking ibuprofen for 5 weeks following a painful injury to her knee. The doctor noted that Heather was taking a diuretic for her high blood pressure and suspected that, combined with the ibuprofen, had caused acute renal failure (injury). Blood tests revealed Heather had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 25 ml/min (normal range > 90 ml/min) is  and other signs of acute renal failure.

Questions: What is the function of the glomerulus and glomerular capsule?

Blood filtration takes place across the interface between the glomerulus and glomerular capsule. Filtered fluid from the blood enters the capsular space of the ___________ capsule and flows into the ______________."

 

A.

glomerular; renal tubule.

B.

fibrous; collecting duct. 

C.

glomerular; loop of Henle.

D.

fibrous; cortical nephrons.

E.

glomerular; distal convoluted tubule (DCT).

5.

 

Case Study 6: Heather, a 62-year-old artist, went to see her doctor as she had been feeling tired and unwell, had swollen ankles, andhad gained 5 kg in a week. Heather informed the doctor that she had been taking ibuprofen for 5 weeks following a painful injury to her knee. The doctor noted that Heather was taking a diuretic for her high blood pressure and suspected that, combined with the ibuprofen, had caused acute renal failure (injury). Blood tests revealed Heather had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 ml/min (normal range > 90 ml/min) is  and other signs of acute renal failure.

Questions: Will Heather's urine output be high, normal, or low basedon her GFR of 25 ml/min?

A.

A increase in GFR means that less fluid is being filtered by the kidneys per unit of time. This will lead to a reduction in urine output meaning that Heather's urine output will below.

B.

A increase in GFR means that more fluid is being filtered by the kidneys per unit of time. This will lead to increase in urine output meaning that Heather's urine output will below.

C.

A decrease in GFR means that less fluid is being filtered by the kidneys per unit of time. This will lead to a reduction in urine output meaning that Heather's urine output will below.

D.

A decrease in GFR means that increase fluid is being filtered by the kidneys per unit of time. This will lead to increase in urine output meaning that Heather's urine output will below.

E.

There will be no change in Heather's urine output.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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