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  3. 1 decide whether the following are arguments or not arguments...

Question: 1 decide whether the following are arguments or not arguments...

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1. Decide whether the following are ARGUMENTS or NOT ARGUMENTS, 121 (1) Mary isnt at work today, because she won the lottery this weekend and quit her job 2) You cant be a naturalized citizen and become president of the United States. Therefore, Amold Schwarzenegger can never become president under the current Constitution. 3) My last night of childhood began with a visit home. TGatois sister had given us two sterile eggs. TGatoi gave one to my mother, brother, and sisters. She insisted that I eat the other one alone. It didnt matter. There was still enough to leave everyone feeling good. Almost everyone. My mother wouldnt take any. She sat, watching everyone drifting and dreaming without her. Most of the time she watched me.. 4) I like ice cream. Berlin is the capital of Germany. Therefore, youll make an A in this class. 2, Are the following arguments VALID or INVALID? (Circle the Answer.) (1)IfMary wins, she will get a prize. Mary doesnt win. There fore, she didnt get a prize. Ivalid] linvalid] Ivalid] invalid] (2) If you are doing this homework assignment, then you are not asleep. You are not asleep. You must be doing the assignment. Therefore, all logicians are physicians. tomormow. Im not tired, so I didnt get paid. Ivalid] lin valid] I validi linvalid (3) Logicians have good manners and physicians have good manners. (4) IfI get paid tonight, Ill go out party ing. If ll go out partying. Ill be tired 3. Decide whether the following arguments are VALID or NOT Decide whether they are SOUND or NOT. (Circle the Answer.) 151 (1) Mars is closer to the sun than Earth. Venus is closer to the sun than Ivalid invalid] Mars. Therefore, the Earth is closer to the sun than Venus. sound] lunsound] Ivalid linvalid] sound lunsound] Ivalid invalid] Isound] u (2) France is in Europe. Paris is in France. Therefore, Paris is in Europe. 3) Mars or Venus are closer to the sun than Earth. A planet closer to the sun than Earth must have a higher surface temperatures than Earth. Mars is not close to the sun than Earth. There fore, Venus has a higher surface temperatures than Earth 4) If a city is in Greece, it is in Europe. Washington is not in Greece Ivalid invalid] Therefore it is not in Europe sound unsound] [valid] invalid] sound unsound] 5) Monkeys are mammals. Apes are mammals. Therefore, monkeys are apes
4. Decide whether the following arguments are STRONG, MODERATE, or WEAK Then decide whether they are COGENT or NOT COGENT. (Circle the Answer)14 (1) Only a few birds do not fly. The albatross is a bird. Therefore the strong/moderatel weak] albatross can fly There fore the platypus is a bird. Therefore gorillas can sign. scorpion is an arachnid but not a spider. Therefore it has 8 legs cogentl Inot cogent] cogent] [not cogent] (2) Most egg-laying creatures are birds. The platypus lays eggs. (3) Some apes have leamed sign language. Gorillas are apes. (4) All arachnids have 8 legs but not all spiders are arachnids. The Istrong/moderatel Iweak] Icogent] [not cogent] Istrong/moderatel [weak] IcogentI [not cogent] Istrong/moderatel Iweak] 5. Consider the statement [a] If it thunders, they will cancel the soccer game. Describe the relation between the statements [al and bl. (Circle answer) 12 (bl) If it doesnt thunder, they wont cancel the game lequiv. not] lequiv. Inot lequiv.] Inot] lequiv.J Inot] (b2) Unless it thunders, they will not cancel the game. (b3) If they didnt cancel the game, it didnt thunder. (b4) They cancel the game if it thunders. 6. Name the famous form. If its invalid, write invalid. 51 (1) IfIm happy, I dance. If Im happy I sing. Therefore when I dance, I sing. (2) I can sing or dance. I cant sing, so I can dance. (3) IfI could sing Id join a choir. Im not in a choir so I cant sing. (4) I want to study math or physics, Im studying physics, so I cant study math. (5) Mary can drive. Mary is 17. Therefore, Mary has a drivers license. 6) IfMary drives, she is at least 15. Mary drives, so she is at least 15 (7) Overeating leads to weight gain. Ilness leads to weight gain. So, overeating leads to illness. (8) All humans are mortal. There fore all mortals are human. 9) If Mary works over the holidays, she will make money. If Mary goes on vacation, she will get a tan. Mary will work or go on vacation. Therefore, Mary will have money or a tan. (10) Overeating leads to weight gain. Weight gain leads to illness. So, overeating leads to illness. BONUS Decide whether the following statements are TRUE or NOT? 1] (1) A valid argument must have a true conclusion. (2) A sound argument must have a true conclusion (3) A cogent argument must have a true conclusion (4) A strong argument can have false premises. YIN YIN YIN
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