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Question: 1 place the following molecules listed alphabetically in order based...

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1. Place the following molecules (listed alphabetically) in order based on their diffusion through a membrane from easiest (higher rate) to most difficult (lower rate).
CO2
Ca2+
ethanol
glucose
H2O
RNA (a polynucleotide)



2.Describe the movement of water, and physical effects experienced by cells placed in the following solutions:
a. A solution with a higher concentration of solutes than the cytosol (hypertonic)
b. A solution with the same concentration of solutes as the cytosol (isotonic)
c. A solution with a lower concentration of solutes than the cytosol (hypotonic)



3. The bacterium Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin, which affects the cells of the gut epithelium by stimulating the export of chloride ions (Cl-), as well as secretion of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions into the lumen of the intestine. Provide an explanation based on membrane structure/function for how this can lead to the massive diarrhea that accompanies a cholera infection.
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