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  3. 1 richard doll and austin bradford hill conducted groundbreaking studies...

Question: 1 richard doll and austin bradford hill conducted groundbreaking studies...

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1. Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill  conducted groundbreaking studies on cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1950s.

 

 

 

2. John Graunt summarised the patterns of mortality in 17th-century London and discovered the regularity of deaths and births.

 

 

 

3.Incidence is defined as the occurrence of old cases of disease that develop in a general population over a specified time period.

 

 

 

4. Doll and Hill initiated a prospective study in 1951 by inviting 59,600 male and female doctors to complete a short questionnaire about their smoking habits.

 

 

5. Incidence rate is defined as the occurrence of new cases of disease that arise during person-time of observation. The number of person-time units is arbitrary.

 

 

6. Incidence quantifies new cases and prevalence quantifies existing cases. 

 

 

7. A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for an observation, a phenomenon, or a scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.

 

 

8. A study of 100 injection drug users who tested negative for HIV infection at enrollment had their HIV status retested at 3-month intervals over a 2 year follow-up period. All of the injection drug users were followed for the entire 2-year period. None died and none were lost to follow-up. 

Which of the following frequency measures of HIV infection can be calculated at the end of the study?

 

A.

Prevalence

B.

Incidence rate 

C.

Both prevalence and incidence rate 

D.

Mortality rate 

E.

Morbidity rate 

9. 

William Farr conducted one of the first observational studies in the neighborhoods of 19th-century London and discovered that contaminated drinking water was the cause of cholera.

  

 

10. 

What are the products or by-products of 1 molecule of glucose being fully broken down via the aerobic energy pathway?

 

 

A.

2 ATP only

B.

4 ATP, Phosphorous and heat

C.

38 ATP, Carbon dioxide, heat and water

D.

4 ATP, Glycogen and heat

E.

2 ATP, Amino acids and water

 

 

11. What is occurring in anabolic processes?

 

A.

None of the answers are correct

B.

Chemicals are being broken down into smaller parts

C.

It is the exact same process as an exchange reaction

D.

Chemical bonds are being formed so new substances can be made

E.

Nothing is happening

12. 

 

Which structure is most proximal to the mouth?

A.

Small intestine

B.

Ascending colon

C.

Appendix

D.

Oesophagus

     E.

Transverse colon

13. 

Where does protein degradation take place?

 

A.

Small intestine

B.

Transverse colon

C.

Oesophagus

D.

Appendix

E.

Stomach

14.

Which part/parts of our digestive system assist/s with mechanical digestion?

 

 

A.

Liver

B.

Both the stomach and mouth

C.

Mouth

D.

Large Intestine

E.

Stomach

15. 

Case Study 2: Matthew, a 16-year-old student, accidentally cut his leg with a knife whilst camping. The cut was deep but Matthew was not concerned about it and covered it with a dressing. Three days later, Matthew felt hot and unwell. The cut on Matthew's leg was very sore and swollen. Examination revealed the cut was discharging a yellow/green fluid and had red margins. Matthew's cut was infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

Question: Why had Matthew's body temperature increased?

 

 

A.

Matthew had a fever. This occurs in response to infection or toxins from the infection. The increase in temperature is intended to neutralise the bacterial or viral infection.

B.

Matthew had a fever. This occurs in response to infection or toxins from the infection. The increase in temperature is intended to increase in pH to neutralise the bacterial or viral infection.

C.

Matthew had a fever. This occurs in response to infection or toxins from the infection which from a physical barrier to defence the bacterial or viral infection.

D.

Matthew had a fever. This occurs in response to  first line of defence against foreign substances, providing both mechanical and chemical protection. 

E.

Matthew had a fever. This occurs in response to infection or toxins from the infection. The increase in temperature and increase in stomach mucosa to secretes gastric juice to neutralise the bacterial or viral infection.

 

16.

Case Study 2: Matthew, a 16-year-old student, accidentally cut his leg with a knife whilst camping. The cut was deep but Matthew was not concerned about it and covered it with a dressing. Three days later, Matthew felt hot and unwell. The cut on Matthew's leg was very sore and swollen. Examination revealed the cut was discharging a yellow/green fluid and had red margins. Matthew's cut was infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

Question: What are the four key signs of inflammation? Do youthink that Matthew's cut skin is inflamed?

 

 

A.

The four key signs of inflammation are redness, heat, pain, and chills and body aches. Therefore, Matthew's cut was inflamed as it was sore, red, and swollen.

B.

The four key signs of inflammation are redness, heat, pain, and yellow/green fluid. Therefore, Matthew's cut was inflamed as it was sore, red, and swollen.

C.

The four key signs of inflammation are redness, heat, fatigue, and chills and body aches. Therefore, Matthew's cut was inflamed as it was sore, red, and swollen.

D.

The four key signs of inflammation are redness, heat, pain, and dry cough. Therefore, Matthew's cut was inflamed as it was sore, red, and swollen.

E.

The four key signs of inflammation are redness, heat, pain, and swelling. Therefore, Matthew's cut was inflamed as it was sore, red, and swollen.

17. 

Case Study 2: Matthew, a 16-year-old student, accidentally cut his leg with a knife whilst camping. The cut was deep but Matthew was not concerned about it and covered it with a dressing. Three days later, Matthew felt hot and unwell. The cut on Matthew's leg was very sore and swollen. Examination revealed the cut was discharging a yellow/green fluid and had red margins. Matthew's cut was infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

Question: What were the symptoms Matthew experiencing and these symptoms belong to which line of defence and immune system?

"Matthew was experiencing ___________ and _____________. They were ___________ line of defence and ____________ immune system.

 

A.

fever, inflammation; first, adaptive.

B.

fever, inflammation; second, adaptive.

C.

fever, inflammation; second, innate.

D.

fever, inflammation; first, innate.

E.

infection, inflammation; first, adaptive.

18.

Case Study 2: Matthew, a 16-year-old student, accidentally cut his leg with a knife whilst camping. The cut was deep but Matthew was not concerned about it and covered it with a dressing. Three days later, Matthew felt hot and unwell. The cut on Matthew's leg was very sore and swollen. Examination revealed the cut was discharging a yellow/green fluid and had red margins. Matthew's cut was infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

Question: What was the yellow/green fluid discharging from Matthew's cut and what does it contain?

 

 

A.

The yellow/green fluid discharge from Matthew's cut is pus. The active lymphocytes engulf sections of damaged tissue, microbes, and leucocytes. 

B.

The yellow/green fluid discharge from Matthew's cut is blood. The active lymphocytes engulf sections of damaged tissue, microbes, and leucocytes

C.

The yellow/green fluid discharge from Matthew's cut is plasma. The active lymphocytes engulf sections of damaged tissue, microbes, and leucocytes

D.

The yellow/green fluid discharge from Matthew's cut is platelets. The active lymphocytes engulf sections of damaged tissue, microbes, and leucocytes

E.

The yellow/green fluid discharge from Matthew's cut is interstitial fluid. The active lymphocytes engulf sections of damaged tissue, microbes, and leucocytes

19. 

Case Study 2: Matthew, a 16-year-old student, accidentally cut his leg with a knife whilst camping. The cut was deep but Matthew was not concerned about it and covered it with a dressing. Three days later, Matthew felt hot and unwell. The cut on Matthew's leg was very sore and swollen. Examination revealed the cut was discharging a yellow/green fluid and had red margins. Matthew's cut was infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

Question: The three main stages/processes involved in inflammation are vasodilation, emigration and tissue repair.  What is the purpose/effect of vasodilation?

 

A.

Vasodilation increases phagocytes (specific types of white blood cells) to ingest foreign material, bacteria and dead tissues.

B.

Vasodilation is a process to repair tissues once the infection and foreign materials have been cleared. 

C.

Vasodilation increases permeability of blood vessels which increases blood flow bringing more white blood cells to the area and clearing more dead tissue. 

D.

Vasodilation  is regulated by the hypothalamus, referred to as the body’s “thermostat.”

E.

Vasodilation is specific response that is triggered whenever body tissues are injured. 

 

 

 

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