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  3. 1 the discussion of abstraction in section 131 noted that...

Question: 1 the discussion of abstraction in section 131 noted that...

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1. The discussion of abstraction in Section 1.3.1 noted that one does not need to understand the makeup of the components as long as "everything about the detail is just fine." The case was made that when everything is not fine, one must be able to deconstruct the components, or be at the mercy of the abstractions. In the taxi example, suppose you did not understand the component, that is, you had no clue how to get to the airport. Using the notion of abstraction, you simply tell the driver, "Take me to the airport." Explain when this is a productivity enhancer, and when it could result in very negative consequences.

2. Consider the following instruction: "Go straight for a mile or so and then turn left." What property of an algorithm this instruction does not have that makes it unacceptable as a statement in an algorithm? Explain your answer in no more than 3 sentences.

3. In Fall 2016, there were 33467 undergraduate students enrolled at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Answer the following questions and show your work for full credit.

a) If every undergraduate student is to be assigned a unique bit pattern, what is the minimum number of bits required to do this?

b) How many more undergraduate students can be enrolled without requiring additional bits for each student's unique bit pattern?

4. Practical electronics strongly favors binary representations for encoding information (two-state; 0 or 1). In DNA, biology uses a quaternary representation of four different nucleobases (four-state; cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]) to code for the amino acids with which all the proteins in our bodies are constructed. All proteins are long chemical chains assembled from 20 different types of amino acids.

a) What is the minimum number of nucleobase “digits” required to code for the 20 different amino acids? (Groups of <your answer> nucleotides, each coding for a single amino acid in a protein chain, are called “codons” by biologists.) (Hint: How many four-state "digits" are needed to represent 20 unique things?)

b) A binary representation is used to store the human genome on a digital computer. How many bits are required to represent each nucleotide in the genetic code? (Note: There is one nucleobase in a nucleotide)

c) The DNA in a human genome consists of about 3 billion (3,000,000,000) nucleotides (base pairs). How many bits are required to store this information in a binary format?

d) The memory in a computer is usually organized in groups of 8 bits, called “Bytes.” How many bytes of memory are required to store your genome in a digital computer?

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