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  3. 1 what is the argument pattern of the following passage...

Question: 1 what is the argument pattern of the following passage...

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1. What is the argument pattern of the following passage (i.e., only the very last inferential step)? Note that the component statements have been broken down and numbered for you.

(1) <Composites hold the key for new aircraft and spacecraft designs.> This is the case because (2) <They are stronger than aluminum> and (3) < [they are also] lighter than aluminum.> (Assume for the purposes of this exercise that material lightness and strength are both required together to make new aircraft and spacecraft designs possible; that is, assume that neither lightness nor strength alone would be sufficient for this end. Also, assume that aluminum is the primary material used at present in aircraft and spacecraft construction.)

Divergent
Horizontal (Linked, Conjunctive)
Vertical (Linear, Serial)
Convergent (Independent Support)

2. What is the argument pattern of the following passage (i.e., only the very last inferential step)? Note that the component statements have NOT been broken down and numbered for you.

"The rain forest of Brazil produces oxygen for the whole world, yet it yields no monetary return to that country.Given that the industrialized nations consume the most oxygen, those nations ought to pay Brazil an annual fee for the use of its rain forest."

Divergent

Horizontal (Linked, Conjunctive)

Vertical (Linear, Serial)

Convergent

3. What is the argument pattern of the following passage (i.e., only the very last inferential step)? Note that the component statements have NOT been broken down and numbered for you.

"Powerful new particle accelerators are important in high energy physics and they are worth their cost because they will allow scientists to produce and capture significant quantities of Z particles. Z particles result from the collision of positrons and electrons, and particle accelerators are needed to achieve significant numbers of these collisions. Z particles are thought to be the bearers of the weak nuclear force, and learning the nature of this force may lead to the development of entirely new sources of energy."

Divergent (Multiple Conclusions)

Horizontal (Linked, Conjunctive)

Vertical (Linear, Serial)

Convergent (Independent Support)

4. What is the argument pattern of the following passage (i.e., only the very last inferential step)? Note that the component statements have been broken down and numbered for you.

(1) <Cigarette consumption could be easily reduced by simply outlawing tailor-made cigarettes.> Why? (2) <The manufacture of tailor-made cigarettes to American standards is a high-tech industry.> Consequently (3) <It cannot be done in small illicit labs like the processing of PCP, cocaine or heroin.> (4) <Most people would not pay the premium prices demanded by an illicit market for a product of unknown quality.>  

Divergent (Multiple Conclusions)

Horizontal (Linked, Conjunctive)

Vertical (Linear, Serial)

Convergent (Independent Support)

5. What is the argument pattern of the following passage (i.e., only the very last inferential step)? Note that the component statements have been broken down and numbered for you.

It has been widely acknowledged that (1) <the quality of undergraduate education in this country is diminishing.> (2) <An often unrecognized cause of this the diminishing quality of undergraduate education in this country is is the exploitative way that universities as employers treat their part-time and temporary faculty members.> (3) <In many universities there are no formal guidelines for evaluating the work of these instructors.> (4) <As a result, poor instructors are often retained not retained when they perform superior work.> (5) <Another factor is the low pay given to these instructors.> (6) <In order to survive, many of them must accept heavy teaching loads spread out over three or four institutions.> Lastly, because (7) <part time and temporary faculty are rarely members of the faculty senate>, (8) <they cannot address other additional professional problems that they face.>

Divergent (Multiple Conclusions)

Horizontal (Linked, Conjunctive)

Vertical (Linear, Serial)

Convergent (Independent Support)

6.What is the argument pattern of the following passage (i.e., only the very last inferential step)?Note that the component statements have been broken down and numbered for you.

(1) <The state has a right to intervene on behalf of unborn children>, and (2) <this right [to intervene on behalf of unborn children] should be implemented immediately.> (3) <While it may be true that a mere fetus has no rights>, (4) <surely a born child does have rights>, and (5) <these rights project backward to the time it was in the womb.> (6) <The child has a right to life> because (7) <what happens to the child in the womb can have an impact throughout the child's life.> (8) <It is well known that alcohol and drug abuse by expectant mothers cause birth defects> and (9) <these defects are not correctable after birth.> Granted, (10) <an expectant mother has the right to treat her own body as she chooses>, but (11) <this right [of a mother to treat her own body as she chooses] does not extend to her unborn child.> (12) <Once a pregnant woman decides to give birth, she effectively transfers part of her rights over to her unborn child.> Unfortunately, however, (13) <the unborn child is incapable of securing these rights for itself.> (14) <Thus, the intervention of a higher power is justified.>

Divergent (Multiple Conclusions)

Horizontal (Linked, Conjunctive)

Vertical (Linear, Serial)

Convergent (Independent Support)

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