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Question: 140 a a history major asks you what viscosity is...

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1(40%) a) A history major asks you what viscosity is. What would you say? b) Define fluid. Dont say Its a substance which takes the shape of its container. c) What is cavitation? d) Air flowing over the top of an airfoil sometimes experiences separation. Explain what this means. What causes separation? Sketch this flow. e) A rotating cylinder is mounted horizontally and perpendicular to the flow in the test section of a wind tunnel. Reynolds number is high and the flow is from left to right past the cylinder. The cylinder rotates counter clockwise. Indicate the direction of the lateral force on the cylinder and sketch the streamlines and wake. Neglect gravity ) Consider the boundary layer for flow parallel to the surface of a horizontal flat plate. Free stream 6 h) Under certain circumstances air flowing through a duct is said to be choked. Explain what this conditions outside the thin boundary layer are 25 C, 101 kPa, uo 80 m/s. What would you estimate the pressure and velocity to be at the surface of the plate? g) What is the definition of streamlining? means. Could mass flow rate be changed by changing upstream stagnation temperature? i) Sketch the velocity distribution, u vs. radius, for a free vortex. j) Imagine a fluid particle in a vortex flow. The pressure at the outer radius of the particle is greater than the pressure at the inner radius, causing the inward centripetal acceleration which keeps the particle following its circular path in the vortex. Sand dropped into a stirred cup of coffee departs from the circular path and follows a path which curves inward to the center of the cup. Explain.

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