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1. Isotopes of an element a) have the same number of protons b) have the same number of neutrons c) have fewer electrons than the element d) are all radioactive 2. Valence electrons a) occupy the inner, or least, energy level of electron orbits around the nucleus b) determine the chemical reactivity of an element c) are always the same number as the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus d) are those electrons that are never involved in chemical reactions 3. Solution A, which has a pll of 7, a) will have the same number of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH-) b) has 2 times more hydrogen ions than solution B which has a pH of six c) has no hydrogen ions and no hydroxyl ions d) has 2 times less hydrogen ions than solution B which has a pH of eight 4. Chemical reactions in the body in which macromolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids are broken dow into constituent subunits such as amino acids or nucleotides a) are called catabolic reactions b) generally involve addition of a water molecule in a hydrolysis reaction c) are almost always controlled by specific enzymes d) All of the above (a, b and c) are correct. s Carbohydrates (sugars) a) are stored in animal cells as branched polymers of glycogen b) may form complexes with other macromolecules such as fipids and proteins c) may exist as complex polysaccharides that play a role in cell-cell interactions in the body d) All of the above (a, b and c) are correct 6 Phospholipids a) use very large proteins as the backbone of the molecule b) have a polar and a nonpolar portion of the molecule c) contain 6 fatty acid chains in each phospholipid molecule d) All the above (a, b and c) are correct 7. Amino acids a) all have an acid group and an amino group and a side chain attached to the alpha carbon b) may have other roles in the body in addition to being a component of protein, c) may be used as energy sources in times of starvation d) All the above (a, b and c) are correct
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