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Question: 3 four species of ground beetle in the genus carabus...

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3. Four species of ground beetle in the genus Carabus are known to be diploid and have the chromosome constitutions shown: C. aneus, AA: C barbadense, BB; C. carinata, CC: C densisetus, DD. It is known that aneus has a diploid number of 14 and that densisetus has a diploid number of 24; none of the diploid species has the same number of chromosomes as any other. Several other species discovered are thought to be polyploid; these species are C eviscerata, C. fulvoguttata, C. gracilis, C. hirsutum, and C. introspecta. Of these species, only eviscerata has been studied in any detail; it is an allopolyploid with the constitution AABB. Crosses were done between these species, but the field notes got wet and the ink ran; thus the only data available are compiled below: Species and/or hybrid #Chromosomes Bivalents Univalents 24 12 eviscerata fulvoguttata gracilis hirsutum 34 54 17 27

introspecta F1 from aneus x eviscerata F1 from carinata x fulvogutata Fl from densisetus x gracilis Fl from aneus x hirsutum F1 from carinata x hirsutum 1 from aneus x introspecta 68 19 37 29 34 42 41 34 15 12 0 15 34 12 27 Based on these data, indicate the number of chromosomes in each diploid species, the chromosome constitutions of the polyploids, whether they are auto- or allopolyploids, and their ploidy. Finally, propose a mechanism by which this could happen in an animal such as ground beetles instead of a plant species as is typically observed.

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