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Question: a 53yearold male with past medical history of obesity bmi...

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A 53-year-old male with past medical history of obesity (BMI of 38 kg/m 2 ) and borderline diabetes presents to you with abnormal liver enzymes (ALT/AST) discovered 6 months ago. His family history is significant for liver cirrhosis. On physical examination you notice mild hepatomegaly (enlarged liver).

A panel of lab tests revealed the following: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 106 (normal range 10 – 40 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 118 (normal range 7 – 56 U/L), with normal bilirubin (generated from the breakdown of hemoglobin). He had a liver ultrasonography that showed diffuse increase in echogenicity and vascular blurring consistent with fatty infiltration. You suspect nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Under normal conditions, describe the metabolism and maturation of VLDL particles.

Describe how NAFLD could manifest and what potential processes could be impaired in order for this disease process to occur (consider both enzymatic and hormonal impairments).

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