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Question: a distinguish with the aid of simple sketches where appropriate...

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(a) Distinguish, with the aid of simple sketches where appropriate, between the construction, operation and applications of the Pelton wheel, Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine.
b) In a Francis turbine, the supply head (H) is 20 m of water (density 1000 kg m3. The discharge rate to atmosphere is 600 kg s-1. The external radius of the runner (R) is 0.43 m and the internal radius (R2) is 0.20 m. The runner blades are radial at inlet and they rotate at 300 revs min-1. The blades occupy 5% of the circumferential area and are shaped to ensure that the radial velocity (uiR) is kept constant and equal to 0.2/2gH. If the shaft power is 80% of the water power, determine the: guide vane angle blade exit angle (i) (ii) (ii) water power (iv) diagram power (v) shaft power (vi) height of runner blade at inlet and outlet.
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