Question: a system has an nlayer protocol hierarchy applications generate messages...
A system has an n-layer protocol hierarchy. Applications generate messages of length M bytes. At each of the layers, an h-byte header is added. In such scenario, the fraction of bandwidth wasted on headers is hn/(M + hn).
Assume that more than one (N)-PDU is encapsulated in an (N-1)-PDU. Try a few values such as 2, 3, 6, and 10. Now consider the same problem if the (N-1)-PCI is half the size of the (N)-PCI. How does this effect the overhead? What can you say about the trend?
※ Answer is not hn/(M + hn) so please don't provide this as an answer.