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Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook Unit 1 Endocrine- page2 water-soluble hormones amino acid-based hormones (amines, peptides, proteins, glycoproteins) gene activation second messenger amplification local hormones paracrine hormones paracrines eicosanoids-leukotrienes and prostaglandins negative feedback control of hormone release hyposecretion of hormone hypersecretion of hormone Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 stress hormones Use the key terms in the group above to fill-in the blanks: The study of endocrine glands and the hormones they secrete is called One of the most intensely studied endocrine disorders involves the hormone insulin and has 2 main types (plus a gestational type): (4 words) is due to an autoimmune attack on the beta cells of the pancreas causing (3), in this case the hormone insulin. In (4) there is generally adequate secretion of insulin yet target cells are resistant or insensitive to insulin due to problems with inadequate receptors and their response systems. Currently in the U.S. we have an epidemic of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. Insulin is a hormone with many liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscles. These cells are targets for insulins action because they have surfaces All the hormones have cell-surface receptors. Whereas all the (2) within target organs such as the (2) for insulin on their cell (3) like insulin and other protein
Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook Unit 1 Endocrine page 3 (3) (including steroid hormones) have their receptors inside target cells since these hormones can pass through the target cells plasma membrane. These two categories of hormones have different mechanisms of action because of their different solubility and the location of their receptors. Cortisol, testosterone, estrogen and progesterone are all (2), and these together with thyroid hormone are lipid-soluble so they enter target cells and bind to their receptors inside the cell and cause their actions via transcription followed by translation of protein occurs for the specific genes that are activated by these lipid-soluble hormones. Since this takes hours, up to days, there is a slower response time with longer-lasting results. The faster-acting hormones are that are water-soluble such as the catecholamine epinephrine, more commonly known as adrenalin. When you have an adrenalin rush, there is a temporary (2) in the nucleus. More (3), in this case epinephrine, and it circulates in the blood, diffuses to target cells such as in the heart or liver and binds to epinephrine receptors on the target cells plasma membrane. Epinephrine-bound receptors activate a the cellular response. (Note that the hormone itself is the first messenger.) Since only a few molecules of epinephrine/adrenalin binding to receptors on a liver cell can cause hundreds of molecules of glucose energy to be released this is referred to as (2) which then in turn causes (from few to many). All hormones have their signal amplified s part of their mechanism of action, but with adrenalin the amplification effect is more obvious or familiar to us. Epinephrine/adrenalin, ACTH and cortisol are as a group called stressors in life. They are useful and hypersecretion of them is appropriate if we exercise, however high levels without exercise to relieve stress can result in longer-term negative health effects, such as when high cortisol suppresses immune system function thereby allowing us to get sick. In the absence of excess stress this negative effect is (2) because they help us cope with avoided because a normal level of cortisol secretion is achieved by
Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook Unit 1 Endocrine - page 4 (6) where an increase in cortisol level inhibits the hormonal pathway responsible for release of cortisol. This feedback for hormonal homeostasis happens for all end-pathway hormones, another example being the regulation of thyroid hormone. The examples of chemical messengers given above (insulin, epinephrine and cortisol) are all classical that are released from (2) (the sources that secrete them) and then travel in the bloodstream to distant target organs. Other important chemical messengers act locally within the same organ where they originate and tend to be fast-acting with a short half-life, meaning they are degraded quickly and dont travel far. These chemical messengers are referred to as they act, or (para/next to and crine/secrete), or simply hormone name so as not to bother the classical endocrinologists.Examples of paracrines include the two groups of chemical messengers called hormones because of where hormones because they are secreted nearby without the and within the larger group known Common over-the-counter NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti- as inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprophen act by blocking secretion of some of these paracrines hypothalamus releasing hormone (RH) gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) release inhibiting hormone inhibiting hormone (IH) growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH) pituitary gland- hypophysis infundibulum hypophyseal portal system
Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook Unit 1 Endocrine- page 5 hypothalmic-hypophyseal tract anterior pituitary adenohypophysis growth hormone (GH) (a.k.a. somatotropin) insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (a.k.a. thyrotropin) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (a.k.a. adrenocorticotropin) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) luteinizing hormone (LH) prolactin (PRL) posterior pituitary neurohypophysis antidiuretic hormone (ADH) = vasopressin oxytocin Use the key terms in the group above to fill-in the blanks: The hormonal pathways. It is part of the brain and therefore part of the nervous system, but it also secretes is the center of control for hormone secretion in many (2) (RHs) and (2) (IHs), which means it is part of the endocrine system as well. The adrenal medulla (inner part of each adrenal gland) is also shared by the nervous and endocrine systems. Inferior to the hypothalamus is the as the It is attached to the hypothalamus by the the pituitary gland that looks glandular and secretes the most hormones is the (2) also known because it is a growth (physis) below (hypo) the brain. stalk. The part of (adeno means gland), also known as the (2). Its partner behind it is the (2) whose other name reflects its histology since it is nervous tissue. The pituitary gland is protected in its home in the sella turcica (turks saddle) of the sphenoid bone. Look at its location and you will see why it is accessed surgically up through the nose and nasal cavity! How does the hypothalamus communicate with and direct the pituitary glands actions?
Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook Unit 1 Endocrine - page 6 it does it by sending hormones to the adenohypohysis and action potentials to the neurohypophysis. The hypothalamus secretes both releasing hormones and release- inhibiting hormones and sends them to the anterior pituitary by a special delivery system called the releasing hormones is not continuous because the hypothalamus 1) secretes in bursts, 2) follows a circadian (daily) rhythm (remember the biological clock is in the hypothalamus), and 3) responds to negative feedback by end-pathway hormones. For example, a childs anterior pituitary glands growth hormone (GH) release is stimulated by more at night and during growth spurts. GH release is sometimes inhibited by the (3). Secretion of (4)) which is secreted (4) (GHIH) also from the (4) (IGFs) are the hypothalamus. secondary hormones through which has its growth promoting effects. The other name that is sometimes used for growth hormone meaning a nurturing and stimulating hormone as explained below. The pituitary gland secretes many tropic hormones that nurture the growth of their target organ as well as stimulating release of another hormone. The action of tropic hormones results in a hormone pathway with 3 hormones from (1) hypothalamus, (2) anterior pituritary gland and (3) end target organ. For example, there is one main releasing hormone called(3) ) that stimulates the release of both gonadotropins: comes from somato- meaning body and -tropin (3) (ESH) and (2) (LH). The gonadotropins nurture growth and development of the gonads (male testes or female ovaries) and stimulate release of sex steroid hormones from the gonads. Another example of a pathway involves a releasing hormone called hypothalamus causing release of vo from the (a.k.a. from the anterior pituitary which as its name implies targets the adrenal cortex causing release of cortisol, an
Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook important metabolic hormone. A third example is the thyroid hormone pathway: The first hormone is hypothalamus; the second hormone is the tropic hormone Unit 1 Endocrine - page 7 from the (3) (a.k.a ) from the anterior pituitary gland which, as its name tells us, stimulates the thyroid gland to release the third hormone- thyroid hormone important metabolic hormone that speeds up metabolism. Another anterior pituitary hormone an (PRL) acts in concert with from the posterior pituitary gland to allow a mother to breastfeed her baby. Production of milk is called lactation and prolactin got its name from promoting lactation. Oxytocin is needed for release of milk during breastfeeding. There is no releasing hormone for oxytocin, instead it is released by a neural reflex when a baby suckles the nipple on mothers breast. Sensory receptors in the nipple send a message to the hypothalamus, exciting the oxytocin neurons there to send action potentials down their axons extending to the posterior pituitary through the (3). When these action potentials arrive at the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary, oxytocin is released and travels in the mothers bloodstream to the mammary glands in the breast, all within seconds! Oxytocin is an example of a neurohormone because it is released from a neuron just like a neurotransmitter would be, only a neurohormone targets a distant cell whereas a neurotransmitter would target an adjacent cell. The other posterior pituitary hormone (besides oxytocin) has two names both related to its actions. This hormone helps us in two ways when were dehydrated. Its main action is to inhibit urine production by the kidneys giving it its most common name (2) ( ). Endocrinologists still like to use its other name based on its secondary action of raising blood pressure -this name is If you drink too much alcohol you inhibit release of this hormone and therefore are not protected from dehydration, and thus need to drink more water - otherwise beware the hangover thyroid gland-follicles and thyroglobulin
Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook Unit 1 Endocrine page 8 thyroid hormone (TH) thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) calcitonin parathyroid glands parathyroid hormone (PTH) adrenal glands suprarenal glands adrenal cortex aldosterone (a mineralcorticoid) cortisol (a glucocorticoid) sex steroids (mainly androgens) adrenal medulla epinephrine adrenalin Use the key terms in the group above to fill-in the blanks: The pair of endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys are the (2) named for being adjacent to the kidneys (renal) and because they are superior to the kidneys they are sometimes referred to as the help animals survive, especially to survive the stress of going without food and water for awhile. The superficial part of these survival glands is called the (2). The adrenal glands probably evolved to (2) and it secretes 3 main sets of hormones with names ending in -oids: and (2). The main mineralcorticoid hormone is which helps ADH maintain fluid balance by targeting the kidneys, only aldosterone affects minerals too, not just water excretion. The main glucocorticoid helping in glucose homeostasis is its secretion from the cortex. The main sex steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex are male lesser extent. Thanks to our adrenal glands, all of us, whether male or female, have both male and female sex steroids circulating in our blood. Please note that all hormones from the adrenal cortex are steroids, as the name aldosterone reminds us. On the other hand, the adrenal medulla secretes amino acid-based hormones- named for (especially DHEA) with female steroids secreted to a
Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook catecholamines. We are probably more familiar with the survival help from the innermost part of our adrenal glands called the Unit 1 Endocrine page 9 (2), since we have all experienced an - rush in an emergency. Adrenalin is the common name and tells us where it comes from, but since that name was trademarked in the U.S., we use as the generic drug name (as in EpiPen@). Epinephrine is a rescue hormone and this name also tells us that it comes from above (epi) the kidneys since the word part nephr- means kidneys (as does renal). The adrenal medulla also secretes norepinephrine (better known as a neurotransmitter) to a lesser extent. There are several endocrine glands located in the anterior cervical region (otherwise known as the neck). The large butterfly-shaped endocrine gland here is the each (2) which is full of of which is made up of a cluster of cells surrounding a colloid gel full of an interesting large protein that stores thyroid hormone. Outside these follicles are C-cells that secrete the hormone for calcium homeostasis. Most of what the thyroid gland puts out is (2) in two forms that have a different number of iodines attached. Most TH released has 4 iodines and is called (), the other form with 3 iodines is actually more active . T4 is also converted to the more active and is called T3 in the liver and target tissues. The other endocrine glands in the cervical region have more diversity among people, as variable numbers of posterior surface of the thyroid gland, often two on each side. These produce (2) are located on the (2) ) (named for its source) which is critical for maintaining an adequate calcium ion concentration in blood. pancreas- pancreatic islets beta cells insulin alpha cells
Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook Unit 1 Endocrine page 10 glucagon gonads = testes/testicles and ovaries testosterone estrogens progesterone pineal gland melatonin heart atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) (a.k.a. ANP where P is for peptide) kidneys erythropoietin (EPO abbreviation is used more for the drug than the hormone) adipose tissue leptin is an organ shared by both the digestive and endocrine systems with the endocrine part arranged in scattered islands of cells called (2). The cells of these islets that are damaged in type 1 diabetes mellitus are the cells that secrete the metabolic hormone called (2) which are the Other islet cells (2) secrete the metabolic hormone that, along with epinephrine, opposes insulins action to lower the level of blood glucose. Another hormone related to nutrients, but in this case nutrient intake, is secreted by body fat, or (2), when plenty of fat is stored, and it acts to decrease appetite. It is interesting that adequate body fat and leptin are needed to initiate puberty. A hormone that helps suppress puberty from occurring too early is a hormone secreted from the (2) at night when it is dark. This hormone targets the hypothalamus and its main action is to help regulate circadian rhythms such as the sleep/wake cycle. At puberty, the hypothalamus secretes more GnRH causing the anterior pituitary to secrete more FSH and LH targeting the
Anatomy & Physiology 2 Learning Handbook Unit 1 Endocrine - page 11 (generic term in both sexes), more commonly called by their sex-specific names or in males and in females. During puberty the gonads grow and begin to secrete much more sex steroid hormones. The male testes secrete promoting male growth and development, while the female and promoting ovaries secrete both female growth and development. Two more hormones to consider (is that all?!!) come from organs that are not classical endocrine glands because hormone secretion is not one of their primary functions. (3) (ANH or ANP), as its name says, We comes from the atria, the pair of top chambers of the need ANH with our American high-salt diet because, as the second part of its name (natriuretic) tells us, it stimulates the kidneys to get rid of excess sodium (Na) in the urine. The last hormone is that targets red bone marrow stimulating production of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Unfortunately this hormone is abused as a drug by some athletes with sometimes fatal results. Besides making erythropoietin, the kidneys also activate vitamin D made by the skin; active vitamin D then functions as a hormone. Vitamin D reminds us that the body has many more hormones than we have time to learn about, or are even studied and well understood. Please remember that hormones are everywhere in the body and influence everything! from the Please note: The additional key terms that you are responsible for knowing in this unit are the endocrine disorders in the Physiology Matching section (on page 18) and the erm endocrine disruptor in the Value Health and Dare to Care section (on page 27)
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