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  3. answer these three questions about helping clients with diabetes in...

Question: answer these three questions about helping clients with diabetes in...

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Answer these three questions about helping clients with diabetes in details. List sources if used.

  • Describe the health behavior theory or model that you will use to ground your efforts. Provide a rationale for your choice.
  • Identify techniques you will use to promote communication and collaboration to your clients, including ways you plan to address resistance
  • Use the Ten Tips for Changing Health Behaviors to illustrate how you will implement the program (ten steps given below)

Ten tips are:

1. Motivation. It is obvious that a person must be motivated to change a health behavior. I have found, however, that the first motivation identified by an older adult is not necessarily the one that lights up their eyes with authenticity. Those contemplating a reason for over- coming their sedentary ways may first come up with a politically cor- rect motivation that elicits the approval of others, including the health educator they are working with, rather than one that is heartfelt.

For instance, avoiding heart disease may truly be the most moti- vating reason for someone to take on the challenge of a new exercise routine. Or it may not be. With a little probing on the part of the health educator, it may come to light that the person is more passion- ate about practicing better sleeping habits, or achieving regularity in bowel habits, or increasing energy in order to play longer with the grandchildren. It is best to spend a sufficient amount of time dis- cussing what motivates the client and to examine the client’s facial expressions for clues to what is of importance.

Health Promotion and Aging

2. Modest. No one is ever disappointed if they exceed the goal they have established. And anyone who does not accomplish a desired goal will be disappointed. Nonetheless, it is an uncommon event when an older adult initially declares a goal that is modest enough to elicit the health educator’s confidence that it can be achieved or exceeded. It is more common, for instance, for someone to state a goal of performing an exercising routine every day. It is important, however, to make that daily goal more modest. If a client sets the goal at exercising four times a week and meets or exceeds that goal, motivation will be sustained.

Health Promotion and Aging

3. Measurable. Measurability has several components. How much will the older adult be doing—that is, how many minutes of exercise and on how many days of the week? How intensely will the person be doing it—that is, will they establish a brisk walking pace that is twice the pace of their normal walking? Will they monitor their breath- ing, making sure that they achieve sufficient intensity to produce deep breathing, but not so much intensity that talking while walking becomes difficult? Will they monitor intensity level, building up in the beginning and slowing down near the end?

Health Promotion and Aging

4.Memory. Habits take up a large part of the day. We give little thought to many of the activities that constitute our daily routine, and at the same time we rarely forget them. How do we switch to a new behavior, one that is a bit challenging to adopt, and make it a new habit? The answer is by enhancing our memory in as many ways as possible.

Health Promotion and Aging

5. Positive Thoughts. Substitute positive and hopeful thoughts for negative, self-defeating ones. For each negative thought like “I’ve never been able to maintain exercise routines before,” substitute a positive argument like “It may be difficult, but this time I will persist and accomplish my goal.” It may be helpful to record affirmations and place them in conspicuous locations. Other avenues of positive support are to find books or magazines that inspire clients, encourage them to associate with persons who model what they are attempting to accomplish, and have them seek friends or acquaintances who are willing to be supportive of their goal.

Health Promotion and Aging

6. Reinforcement. Most psychologists rely on positive reinforcement rather than negative reinforcement. If success is achieved at the end of the first week, for instance, encourage clients to treat themselves to a movie or purchase a book. If success is observed at the end of the month, encourage them to buy theater tickets.

7. Environmental Support. Another term for environmental support is stimulus control. The best example of this applies to weight manage- ment. If you want to contribute to weight maintenance or loss, make sure that the client does not keep junk food in the house.

Health Promotion and Aging

8. Stress Management. It is the rare person who does not feel stress these days. Not only do we live in a fast-paced society, but we are also likely to contend with the automobile driver who is releasing road rage, cope with a frustrating physical disability, struggle with a personal loss, or encounter countless other hassles and annoyances. Stress is a common barrier to achieving a health goal. If possible, therefore, build into the plan of action a few stress management tech- niques that can be practiced on a regular basis, preferably daily.

Health Promotion and Aging

9. Social Support. This tip is next to last, but definitely not in order of importance. I suggest that some thought be given to social support for every client. For most older adults, social support is desirable; for some, it is essential. It may be a good idea to build social support into the statement of the health goal itself.

Health Promotion and Aging

10. Problem-Solve. Finally, chances are good that the client has tried to achieve this exercise goal or a similar one before. It typically takes multiple efforts to achieve a goal. Explore what might have gone wrong in the past, or what might go wrong in the immediate future. Spend a little time identifying likely barriers and ways to overcome them. It may turn out that problems can be solved by addressing some of the previous tips. Or the client may have to develop his or her own additional tip

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