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Question: body systems a the human body 1 in the space...

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Body Systems

A.  The Human Body

1.    In the space below complete the definition of the corresponding term.

TERM                     DEFINITION

Cells

 

 

Tissue

 

 

Organs

 

 

Systems

 

 

 

2.    Read the definitions below and name the system it describes. The system may be used in more than one sentence.

 

a)   The_________________ system consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons and accounts for about 20 percent of the body weight.

 

b)   This system prepares nutrients for utilisation by body cells. It is the _________________system.

 

c)   The ____________ system acts through chemical messengers called hormones that influence growth, development and metabolic activities.

 

d)   This system’s main function is to ensure survival of the species. It is the _____________ system.

 

e)   The ______________________ system consists of the heart, blood and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries.

 

f)    The _____________________ system works with the cardiovascular system to provide oxygen and to remove the waste products of metabolism.

 

g)   This system is the major controlling, regulatory and communicating system in the body. It is the centre of all mental activity including thought, learning and memory. This is the _____________ system.

 

h)   One of my most important functions is to act as a defence against invading microorganisms and disease. I am the ________________ system.

 

i)    The principal function of the _________________ system is to maintain the volume and composition of body fluids within normal limits.

 

 

 

B.  Cardiovascular System

1.     List two functions of the Cardiovascular system

 

 

 

 

2.     Name three components of the cardiovascular system and their location and function.

 

Component

Location

Function

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.     Name two problems with the cardiovascular system and at least two signs or symptoms for each.

 

Problem

2 Signs or Symptoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.  Respiratory System

 

1.    List two functions of the Respiratory system

 

 

 

 

2.    Name three components of the respiratory system and their location and function.

 

Component

Location

Function

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.    Name two problems with the respiratory system and at least two signs or symptoms for each.

 

Problem

2 Signs or Symptoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.  Musculo-skeletal System

 

1.             List the three major functions of the Musculo-skeletal system.

 

 

 

 

2.             Name where you would find these bones:

Bone

Location

Femur

 

Tibia

 

Radius

 

Humerus

 

Scapula

 

Sternum

 

Vertebrae

 

Clavicula

 

 

3.             In the human body there are three types of muscles. In the space below, name the types of muscles, where you would find them in the human body and how they are controlled.

Muscle Type

Location

How they are controlled

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.             In the first column, insert the name of the component of the musculo-skeletal system that corresponds to the description below:

Component

Description

 

Connects muscle to the bone

 

Connects bone to bone

 

Dense tissue covering articulating surfaces of bones

 

Place of articulation between two bones

 

5.             In the second column, select one of the following (bone, joint, ligament or muscle) that corresponds to the type of injury. In the third column, insert the signs and symptoms associated with the type of injury.

Type of injury

Most common component of musculo-skeletal system impacted

Signs and Symptoms

Fracture

 

 

Dislocation

 

 

Strain

 

 

Sprain

 

 

 

 

 

E.   Endocrine System

 

1.    What is the function of the endocrine system?

 

 

 

2.    For each of the major glands of the endocrine system listed below, identify its location and function.

 

Gland

Location

Function

Pituitary gland

 

 

Thyroid Gland

 

 

Pancreas

 

 

Testis

 

 

Ovaries

 

 

 

3.      List 4 diseases that could result from problems with these glands and the signs and symptoms that a patient may present with.

 

Disease

Signs and Symptoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F.   Digestive System

 

1.    What is the function of the Digestive system?

 

 

 

2.    What is the location and function of the following components of the digestive system?

 

Component

Location

Function

Mouth

 

 

Oesophagus

 

 

Stomach

 

 

Small intestine

 

 

Large intestine

 

 

 

3.    Name three problems with the digestive system and the signs or symptoms for each.

 

Problem

Signs or Symptoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G.  Urinary System

 

1.    List three functions of the Urinary system

 

 

 

 

 

2.    Name four components of the urinary system and their location and function.

 

Component

Location

Function

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.    Name two problems with the urinary system and signs or symptoms for each.

 

Problem

Signs or Symptoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H.  Reproductive System

1.    List the main function of the reproductive system.

 

 

2.    Where is the reproductive system located?

 

 

3.    What is function of the following components of the male reproductive system?

 

Component

Function

Penis

 

Testes

 

Epididymis

 

Vas deferens

 

 

4.    What is function of the following components of the female reproductive system?

 

Component

Function

Vagina

 

Uterus

 

Fallopian tubes

 

Ovaries

 

 

 

 

5.    Name three problems with the reproductive system and the signs or symptoms for each.

 

Problem

Signs or Symptoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I.    Integumentary System

 

1.      What are the five major functions of the integumentary system?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.      What are the 2 components of the integumentary system?

 

 

 

3.      Name the two major layers in the human skin.

 

 

 

4.    Name two problems with the integumentary system and the signs or symptoms for each.

 

Problem

Signs and Symptoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J.    Lymphatic System

 

1.    What are the three major functions of the lymphatic system?

 

 

 

 

 

2.    What is the location and function of the following components of the lymphatic system?

 

Component

Location

Function

Spleen

 

 

Lymph nodes

 

 

Lymphatic vessels

 

 

 

3.    Name two problems with the lymphatic system and the signs or symptoms for each.

 

Problem

Signs and Symptoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

K.  Nervous System

 

1.    What is the function of the nervous system?

 

 

 

2.    List two components of the Central Nervous System:

 

 

 

3.    List two components of the Peripheral Nervous System:

 

 

 

4.    Name three problems with the nervous system and the signs or symptoms for each.

 

Problem

Signs or Symptoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

L.   Sensory System and the special senses

 

1.    What is the function of the sensory system?

 

 

 

2.    Give a brief explanation for each of the five special senses:

 

a)   Smell (olfaction)

 

 

b)   Taste

 

 

c)    Sight

 

 

d)   Touch

 

 

e)   Hearing

 

 

3.    What are the signs or symptoms for each of the following eye problems.

 

Problem

Signs or Symptoms

Cataract

 

Glaucoma

 

 

 

 

 

4.    What are the signs and symptoms of phantom taste perception?

 

 

5.    Briefly describe each of the conditions and its signs and symptoms.

Condition

Description

Signs or Symptoms

Hyposmia

 

 

Parosmia

 

 

 

6.    What are 2 possible causes for balance problems.

 

 

 

7.    How would you know that someone had a balance problem?

 

 

8.    What are two signs or symptoms of hearing loss?

 

 

 

 

 

9.    For each of the components of the ear listed below, identify its location (inner, middle or outer ear) and briefly describe its function:

Component

Location (inner, middle or outer ear)

Function

Pinna

 

 

Eardrum

 

 

Cochlea

 

 

 

 

 

M. Immune System

 

1.    What is the function of the immune system?

 

 

 

2.    What is the function of the following components of the immune system?

 

Component

Function

Lymphocytes – B-cells

 

Lymphocytes – T-cells

 

Leukocytes

 

 

3.    List the signs or symptoms for the following three diseases that result from problems with the immune system.

 

Problem

Signs or Symptoms

Asthma

 

Lupus

 

Rheumatoid arthritis

 

 

 

 

A.  Homeostasis

 

1.      What is meant by the term ‘homeostasis’?

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.      What are four factors that can affect homeostatic balance in the human body?

 

 

 

 

 

3.      Name two (2) conditions caused by homeostatic imbalance.

 

 

 

4.      Below is a list of mechanisms the body uses to control its temperature (thermoregulation). For each one, briefly describe the process and whether it lowers or increases the body’s temperature.

 

Mechanism

Description

Lower or Increase Temperature

Sweating

 

 

Thermogenesis

 

 

Vascoconstriction

 

 

Vascodilation

 

 

 

5.      To achieve water balance in the body, what mechanisms are used to achieve an increase or decrease in body water

 

Goal

Mechanisms

Increase

 

Decrease

 

 

 

 

6.      Briefly explain each of the following terms related to a blood pH imbalance.

 

Term

Explanation

Respiratory acidosis

 

Metabolic acidosis

 

Respiratory alkalosis

 

Metabolic alkalosis

 

 

7.      Identify what waste products each of following eliminates from the body

 

Component

Eliminates

Kidneys

 

Respiratory System

 

Digestive System

 

Skin

 

 

8.      Describe three ways that the body can control blood pressure.

 

 

 

 

 

9.      For each of the following, describe how they protect the human body from infection.

 

Body part

How it protects the human body from infection

Skin

 

Mucous membranes

 

White blood cells

 

 

10.   Identify three ways in which physical activity (active and passive) benefits the human body?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.  Maintaining a healthy body

 

1.              List four different strategies that may help to prevent non-insulin dependent diabetes.

 

 

 

 

 

2.              Describe how smoking may affect the following body systems.

 

a)    Respiratory system

 

b)    Cardiovascular system

 

c)     Nervous system

 

 

 

3.              Define three (3) examples of a poor diet and describe what effect they may have on a healthy body.

 

 

 

 

4.     Name three (3) long-term effects on the body from excessive consumption of alcohol.

 

 

 

 

 

P.     Case Studies

 

1.         Case Study 1

 

Mr Taylor is patiently waiting for you out the front of his house, when you arrive to pick him up at 9am to go to the beach for a day outing. Mr Taylor is always proper, and you notice he is dressed in dark corduroy trousers, a pressed shirt, tie and a dark heavy wool sports jacket. It is a summer day and the temperature is already 270C.

 

What are the possible problems associated with this scenario?

 

 

 

 

 

 

What body systems may be affected?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.         Case Study 2

 

You observe that your patient is experiencing chest pains, is sweaty and has difficulty breathing.

 

What body systems may be affected?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.         Case Study 3

 

Identify what body systems are affected when a patient has a cold.

 

 

 

 

 

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