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Question: finition 1411 let g v e be a graph...

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finition 1.4.11 Let G = (V, E) be a graph and u E V. The open neighborhood of u (or neighbor- r short), denoted by NG(u) or N(u), is the set of all the neighbors of u in G. The closed hood of u, fo neighborhood of u, denoted by NGlul or Nlu, is defined by N(u)u lu). In general, for S & V, No (S) = {u | u E No(s) for some s E S} No[S] = No (S) U S. When G is understood, we write N(S) and N[S], respectively.
4. Let G ( V , E ) be graph (not necessarily simple), and U, W be subsets of V. Prove that = a (a) Naru w) = N(U) U N(W); (b) N(Unw)S N(U)n N(W);

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