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Question: food microbiology 1 discuss how spore water content influences...

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Food Microbiology

1. . Discuss how spore water content influences heat resistance. How does this integrate with what else you know about thermal lethality (i.e., wet versus dry heat, heat resistance at low water activity, etc.)?

2. Speculate—if spore formation is such a good mechanism for surviving adverse conditions, why don’t all bacterial species form spores?

3. Figure 3.2 shows an idealized diagram of a spore. How many of the structures can you identify in the real transmission electron micrograph shown here?

4. Figure 3.4 illustrates the influence of sporulation temperature on D value. What is the effect of sporulation temperature on the z value in this case?

5. Many mechanisms in this chapter are described as “not understood,” “unknown,” or “yet to be determined.” Identify one such mechanism and use an online search engine, such as Google Scholar, to find at least one article dealing with that mechanism. Read the introduction and discussion of the paper and explain what is known and what is unknown.

Figure 3.4 Influence of sporulation temperature on D values of Bacillus subtilis sporulated at 32°C (pale green dots) or 52°C (dark green dots). Redrawn from F. Sala et al., J. Food Prot. 58:239-243, 1995. Copyright International Association for Food Protection, Des Moines, IA. doi:10.1128/9781555817206.ch03.f03.04 0 -2 100 105110 115 120 125 130 135 Temperature (°C)

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