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Question: foundations of biostatistics and epidemiology 1 ninetynine university researchers attend...

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1. Ninety-nine university researchers attend a 3-day 'Writing Retreat' (which is basically a boot camp for writing research papers). At the conclusion of this so called Retreatthey were asked to rate their opinion for the future need and usefulness of this event. Having barely survived, only 60% responded. The response options were 'not useful, useful or very useful'. The organizers wanted to know if opinions differed between male and female attendees, in other words if opinion was contingent ongender. Which one of the following tests will be a suitable choice to test this hypothesis?



a)     Chi Square test


b)     Spearman's rho


c)     Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA


d)     Wilcoxon Signed Rank test


e)     Independent Samples t test



2. A new screening test for bowel cancer was administered to 1,906 cases with biopsy-proven diagnosis and to 17,458 without bowel cancer. The new screening test was positive for 1,486 already diagnosed cases and also for 795 individuals who were free of bowel cancer. What percentage of disease free individuals will be correctly identified by the test? (express your answer as percentage with two decimal places)

3. A screening test for bowel cancer was administered to 2,944 individuals with biopsy-proven bowel cancer and to 5,699 individuals without this cancer. The screening test was positive for 1,747 of the proven cases and 335 of the cancer free individuals. What percentage of bowel cancer cases will be correctly identified by the test?Only the final answer is needed with two decimals; units or symbols such as % are not required.

4. In an RCT for a new antihypertensive drug, the study subjects were randomized into three groups after baseline measurements; group A to receive high dose of the new drug, group B to receive low dose of the new drug and third group C to receive current drug. Average BP was recorded at the end of the trial for all three groups but the positive skew in the DV did not go away even after transformation. Which one of the following is a good option:


a)     Proceed with the non parametric test


b)     It does whatever you ask for so let SPSS do its thing.


c)     This is a good excuse for not having to do anything further so proceed with some rest and relaxation. 


d)     Proceed with the parametric test, no one will find out anyway.



5. A unit coordinator knows that few students mix up the interpretation of p value from an assumption test as opposed to the p value from a 'hypothesis test'  which is employed to actually test the study hypothesis. P value from an assumption test will only tell us if the assumption is violated or not violated but it the p value of the actual hypothesis test that will determine our overall conclusion about the study. Anyway let's move on with the real question below:

Students studying a second year statistics unit were requested to respond to the statement 'P value scares me' with possible response options 'Always, Most of the times, Sometimes, Rarely or Never'. If the unit coordinator wants to explore whether response rankings are actually different between Internal and Fully Online students and chance is unlikely, which test should be selected for the analysis? 



a)     Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test


b)     Shapiro-Wilk test


c)     Mann-Whitney U test


d)     Levene's test


e)     Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA


f)      Independent Samples t test


6. A new screening test for breast cancer was administered to 2,990 women with biopsy-proven cervical cancer and to 3,279 women without cervical cancer. The new screening test was positive for 1,714 cases of cervical cancer and falsely positive for 325 women. If someone has a positive test result what are the chances that this person actually has cervical cancer? Express your final answer as percentage with two decimals.


7. 'Bracketing' in qualitative research means:


a)     Researcher describes life experiences of the study participants without any preconceived ideas, bias or judgement of their own.


b)     Making sure to use brackets on the calculator to get correct answer.


c)     Getting incorrect answer due to not using brackets on the calculator.


d)     This is something you use to jam the door or window to make sure it stays open or closed (whatever it is you are trying to do with the door or the window)!


NEED IT ASAP.....................


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