# Question: foundations of biostatistics and epidemiology andnbspquestion 1 this question will help...

###### Question details

**QUESTION 1**

- This question will help you to interpret correctly and differentiate between
__p value for an assumption test__as opposed to__p value for a hypothesis test__(confusion between the two is a common error in the answers for the first written assignment).

All statements below are correct except TWO; please identify the ** two incorrect** statements.

**Two answers**are required.

a) P value (or probability value) of a hypothesis test tells us how likely are our findings due to random chance factors if a study's null hypothesis was true and there really was nothing going on (in terms of relationship between variables) in the population represented by the sample. |
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b) If p value for Shapiro Wilk test of normality is less than .05, likelihood of chance factors responsible for the observed findings is low and we conclude that a real correlation between the two variables exists in the population represented by the sample. |
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c) If p value for Shapiro Wilk test of normality is less than .05 we conclude that the assumption of normality, on the basis of this test, is not violated. |
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d) If p value generated by Pearson’s correlation analysis is less than .05 (p=<.05) it means that the likelihood of random chance alone for the observed correlation (or even a stronger one or more extreme if null was correct) is less than .05 (or <5%) we reject null and conclude a real correlation exists between the two variables in the population and is statistically significance. |
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e) If p value for Shapiro Wilk test of normality is .067 we conclude that the assumption of normality is met or not likely to be violated. |
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f) If p value generated by Pearson’s correlation analysis is .05 (or higher) we conclude that the likelihood is high that the observed correlation is probably due to random chance factors and in the wider population represented by the sample there really is no correlation between the two variables. |

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**QUESTION 2**

- A cross-sectional study may allow us to compare prevalence of an outcome between exposed and non-exposed groups using __________________ while in an ecological study the use of _____________________ is quite common to establish a link between exposure and an outcome especially where data on both are continuous.

Please choose one option from below that has both correct terms, and in correct order, for the two blanks in the statement above.

a) Prevalence ratio and squared value of Pearson's correlation coefficient r, respectively. |
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b) Incidence rate and r squared, respectively. |
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c) Prevalence ratio and Risk ratio, respectively |
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d) Pearson's r squared and odds ratio, respectively |
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e) Squared r (Pearson's correlation coefficient) and Prevalence ratio, respectively |

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**QUESTION 3**

- What does the ‘Sampling distribution of means’ show:

a) Means from several samples that are same size and obtained from the same population. |
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b) Means of two samples that are different in size but have been obtained from the same population. |
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c) Mean calculated from one sample. |
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d) Medians from several samples that are same size and obtained from the same population. |

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**QUESTION 4**

- If Pearson's correlation coefficient 'r value' is -0.99 then what will be the value for the
**measure of association and effect**used here? Please calculate and type in your final answer as percentage with two decimals after correct rounding.

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**QUESTION 5**

- Which one of the following study designs has the key identification feature of using aggregate or group level data for the analyses?

a) Cross-sectional |
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b) Quasi-experimental |
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c) Case control |
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d) Ecological/Correlational |
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e) Cohort |

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**QUESTION 6**

- Which one of the following is not 'Analytic' type of study design?

a) Ecological/Correlational |
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b) Cross-sectional |
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c) Case control |
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d) Case Series |
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e) Cohort |

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**QUESTION 7**

- For an 'assumption test' (that tests an assumption or requirement before analysis) we would want the p value to be greater than .05 whereas for a statistical test we use for NHST we would want the p value to be less than .05.

True

False

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**QUESTION 8**

- All of the following statements are correct except one; please identify the incorrect statement.

a) If p value for a hypothesis test is .054 null will be rejected and results will be considered statistically significant. |
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b) If p value after conducting a hypothesis test is .005 we reject null. |
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c) Inclusion and Exclusion criteria for an epidemiological research study are list of conditions or characteristics, varying from study to study, that determine who should be |
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d) Although some researchers may use these terms interchangeably, however, the difference between |
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e) The purpose of performing a statistical test is to rule out that the observed findings are not due to chance factors but in fact real and exist in the population represented by the sample. |
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f) Results of a study have 'Statistical significance' if there is only less than 5% random chance likely for the observed findings (determined by |

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**QUESTION 9**

- If sample sizes are large enough, sampling distribution of means will show a normal distribution even if the variable itself is skewed in the population. This is a simplified description of:

a) Murphy’s Law |
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b) Central Limit Theorem |
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c) Assumption test rule |
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d) Empirical rule of 68%, 95% & 99% |
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e) Standard Normal distribution |

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**QUESTION 10**

- What is '
**Homoscedasticity**'?

a) Not sure but this probably refers to the same-sex marriage or marraige equality. |
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b) It is one of the assumption (i.e. requirement) for correlation analyses that the variability in one variable should be roughly similar or uniform across all values of the other variable. |
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c) It is one of the assumption for 'Association' that the variability in one variable is similar across all values of the other variable. |
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d) It is one of the assumption for correlation analysis that the variability in one variable should not be similar across all values of the other variable. |

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**QUESTION 11**

- Which one of the following statements about study designs is INCORRECT?

a) Case Report and Case Series belong to descriptive category of study designs. |
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b) Cohort studies are usually descriptive design. |
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c) Cross-sectional studies can be both descriptive as well as analytical. |
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d) Case control studies are observational analytic design. |
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e) Ecological studies are based on population level or group based aggregate data. |
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f) Difference between a true experiment and a quasi-experiment is the lack of random assignment of study subjects into experimental and control groups. |

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**QUESTION 12**

- Standardized scores or z-scores allow us to compare variables with different units and different means and standard deviations, commonly used in health sciences and health practice. If mean weight for a sample of patients is 74 kgs and standard deviation is 5 kgs. What is the standardized score (or z-score) for a patient whose weight is 62 kgs? Use of brackets, at least for the numerator part, is highly recommended. Please remember only the final answer with two decimals is required (and not the whole working out).

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**QUESTION 13**

- Standard error obtained from a sampling distribution (i.e. a distribution that is based on several hypothetical samples from a population) provides us some general idea as to how close our ______________is to the unknown_______________ that we would like to make _______________about.

Please choose one option from below that has __all three terms listed in the correct order __for the three blanks in the statement above.

a) Population parameter, sample parameter, predictions |
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b) Population statistic, sample parameter, hypothesis |
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c) Sample parameter, population sample, inferences. |
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d) Sample statistic, population parameter, inferences |
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e) Population, sample statistic, conclusions |

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**QUESTION 14**

- Both are experimental studies but the main differnce between a randomized controlled Trial (RCT) and a quasi-experimental trial (experiment-like trial) is the absence of:

a) Control group |
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b) Randomization |
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c) Sense of humour |
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d) Intervention |
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e) Random sample |

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**QUESTION 15**

- Which one of the following is INCORRECT statement?

a) If Pearson's r is .71, then 71% of variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the independent variable. |
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b) If Pearson's r is 0, there is no linear correlation between the two variables. |
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c) For correlation between study hours and final mark r = .72 while for negative correlation between years of education and time spent in prison r = -.72. We can conclude that both correlations are equally strong. |
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d) An apparently strong correlation can simply be due to extreme values or outliers, if present. |
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e) If Pearson's r is .61, then 37% of variation in y/dependent variable can be explained by the x/independent variable. |
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f) If Pearson's r is .35 then the value for the suitable measure of effect is .12 |

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**QUESTION 16**

- Which one of the following statements is incorrect about Histogram?

a) Vertical axis should start at zero and not have any breaks. |
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b) It is the most common graph to display frequency distribution of a continuous variable. |
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c) Bands are vertical and should not touch each other. |
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d) Y axis represents Frequency/Count |
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e) Intervals are of equal width |

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