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Question: foundations of biostatistics and epidemiology question 1 metaanalysis is secondary...

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FOUNDATIONS OF BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

Question 1

‘Meta-analysis’ is secondary research where:

   

a)     Data from systematic reviews are combined and re analysed to produce an overall measure of effect.

   

b)     Data from eligible primary studies are combined and re analyzed to produce an overall measure of effect.

   

c)     Data from Critical summaries are combined and re analysed to produce an overall measure of effect.

   

d)     Data from all the studies are combined and re analysed to produce an overall measure of effect.

Question 2

Regarding 5 steps of the evidence based approach which option has all five steps in correct order:

   

a)     ASK an answerable clinical question, ACQUIRE the best available evidence, APPRAISE the evidence, APPLY the evidence and ASSESS the process.

   

b)     ASK an answerable clinical question, ACQUIRE the best available evidence, ASSESS the process APPRAISE the evidence and APPLY the evidence.

   

c)     ASK an answerable clinical question, ACQUIRE the best available evidence, APPLY the evidence ASSESS the process and APPRAISE the evidence.

   

d)     ASK an answerable clinical question, ACQUIRE the best available evidence, APPLY the evidence APPRAISE the evidence and ASSESS the process.

 

Question 3

The best quality evidence is generated by:

   

a)     Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of RCTs

   

b)     Individual RCT

   

c)     Observational studies

   

d)     Quasi-experimental studies

Question 4

Combining quantitative and qualitative elements in the same study is called

   

a)     Why everything has to have a name or a title!!

   

b)     Text Book approach

   

c)     Innovative approach

   

d)     Mix methods approach

Question 5

An experimental study is said to have ___________________ if measurements are accurate and the differences between two groups at the end of the study are only due to the intervention and not due to any bias and/or confounding.

   

a)     External validity

   

b)     Reliability

   

c)     Internal validity

   

d)     Precision

   

e)     Homoscadasticity

Question 6

Declaration of Helsinki is the modified and updated version of:

   

a)     Nuremberg Code

   

b)     Code of Professional Conduct

   

c)     Code of Professional Practice

   

d)     Code for the Respect of Vulnerable People

Question 7

A study is said to have ___________________ if results of the study can be generalised to the population represented by the sample.  

   

a)     Precision

   

b)     Reliability

   

c)     External validity

   

d)     Internal validity

Question 8

Systematic review is a comprehensive identification and synthesis of the available studies on a specified topic and it is preferable that these studies have:

   

a)     Same study design

   

b)     Same sample size

   

c)     Same population

   

d)     Same source in terms of database.

 

 

Question 9

Using money to systematically target those who may be vulnerable due to their low financial status can be considered coercion and it breaches which one of the following four ethical principles:

   

a)     Justice

   

b)     Beneficence

   

c)     Non-maleficence

   

d)     Respect for Autonomy

Question 10

Using two or more methods in a single study to collect information e.g. questionnaires, and focus groups will be considered as:

   

a)     Investigator triangulation

   

b)     Methods-based triangulation

   

c)     Analysis triangulation

   

d)     Geometric triangulation

Question 11

(Two answers required) Power of a study is:

   

The ability to find the difference between comparison groups if it exists in the population reflected by the sample.

   

a)     The ability to find the association between variables if it exists in the population reflected by the sample.

   

b)     Power is all about the effects of steroids on muscle mass.

   

c)     The inability to find the difference between comparison groups if it exists in the population reflected by the sample.

   

d)     The inability to find the difference between comparison groups if it exists in the population reflected by the sample.

Question 12

EBH (Evidence Based Healthcare), EBM (Evidence Based Medicine), EBP (Evidence Based Practice) and EIHP (Evidence Informed Health Practice) in terms of management of patients or clients, given required resources are available, all have 3 common elements:

   

a)     Using the current best research evidence, along with clinical expertise and lowest cost.

   

b)     Using the current best research evidence, along with clinical expertise and patient preference for treatment.

   

c)     Using the current best research evidence, along with clinical expertise and innovative treatment.

   

d)     Using the current best research evidence, along with clinical expertise and most popular treatment.

 

Question 13

“Enhanced confidence in the workforce as decision making is reflected in enhanced care options” is an advantage of evidence based approach to:

   

a)     The organisation

   

b)     No one really, it is all just window dressing.

   

c)     To the practitioner

   

d)     To the patient

Question 14

Considering the 'need for trust and confidentiality' comes under which one of the following ethical principles for research involving humans:

   

a)     Beneficence

   

b)     Respect for Autonomy

   

c)     Non-maleficence

   

d)     Justice

Question 15

Should a systematic review only include those studies that show association between the exposure and outcome of interest?

   

a)     No, otherwise overall summary measure of effect will not be accurate.

   

b)     Yes, because otherwise overall summary measure of effect will be inaccurate.

   

c)     Yes, because studies that show no association are not really important.

   

d)     No, because then it is not possible to calculate overall measure of effect.

Question 16

Following statements are all incorrect except TWO; please identify the two correct statements; Two answers are required.

 

   

a)     Non-parametric tests can be used to analyse ordinal, interval and ratio variables.

   

b)     In order to assess statistical significance both p value and 95% CI (if available) should ideally be taken into account.

   

c)     The difference between Primary and Secondary research is that secondary research generates new data from study participants whereas primary research uses data that had already been collected.

   

d)     Systematic review is reviewing a study or a research paper very systematically.

   

e)     The suitable measure of association for a cohort study is odds ratio while for a case control study it is relative risk.

   

f)      Choice of a correct test for data analyses does not depend on research purpose, measurement scale of the dependent variable and number of groups involved.

   

g)     Informing potential research participants of all possible risks and benefits is essential for Informed Consent and is an optional moral duty of a researcher.

 

WITH SOLUTION IF NEEDED.......

 

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