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Question: hello could you please write a 2 paragraph 56 sentences...

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Hello! Could you please write a 2 paragraph (5-6 sentences each paragraph) summary of the below article? In the summary, if you could please describe the article in detail. Please have completed in 24 hours if possible.

ot long ago, I happened upon a list of the manufactur- ers of the engines that power the 200+ mph cars at the Indianapolis 500 race. Of the 20 or so listed, I could find only one with reference to Detroit, the birthplace of automobile manufacturing. Soon after, I examined the list of the top 10 cars based on quality, as compiled and published by Consumer Reports. Again, only one vehicle could call Detroit its companys origin. Hard to believe. The companies that comprised most of those lists were practicing manufacturing techniques called Six Sigma, Lean and Lean Six Sigma whose origins were surprisingly -American. Originated by a U.S. engineer and statistician respectively, Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran, these techniques pointed to a new way of manufacturing that aimed to reduce product defects and improve through- put or flow within a manufacturing process. Now, some 50 years later, those philosophies have spread to service sectors, hospitals, retail, transportation, and even to the aggregates industry. SIX SIGMA AND LEAN WHAT ARE THEY? Six Sigma is a widely practiced meth- Quality was the birthplace of Six odology that helps reduce quality Sigma, which has as its goal to produce defects in product manufacturing and only 3.4 defects per million products. problem solving1. While generally Six Sigma can be understood holisti- accepted that Six Sigma originated in cally by considering it as a philosophy the mid 1980s by Motorola, its origins a goal, a unit of measure and a culture. go back several decades to the writings As evidenced by Asian manufacturers of Deming Juran, Taguchi, Shewhart of automobiles, engines and electron- and Shingo among others2 is DMAIC: define, measure, analyze, improve and control. g ics, Six Sigma can literally change the In fact, the tenets of Six Sigma can way managers and employees thinlk be found in the quality engineering and behave. writings and explorations of the early The production concept of Lean to mid 20th century. Its early stages was made popular by Womack and were based on a methodology for Jones book, The Machine That defining the problem, measuring and Changed the World: The Story of Lean collecting data, analyzing that data Production. Simply defined Lean is with follow-up improvement ideas about producing the maximum sell- and (lastly) establishing a plan for able products or services at the low controlling the process going forward. est operational cost while optimizing The acronym for this methodology inventory levels.3 Lean philosophies ROCK PRODUCTS JULY 2008 21

strive to reduce waste in a manufac- Consider the average quarry and its mating a plant, which does require turing, production, distribution or many sequential processes: shooting arespectable level of change. If the similar process. Lean approaches seek load-haul-convey, primary crushing organization has unlimited income or to remove sources of waste directly or surge stockpiling, conveying, second is sitting on piles of cash, then upgrad- ary crushing, conical piling, quality ing the plant and equipment every few Lean thinking is sometimes called testing, loading, weighing and ticket years may be the best path to follow Lean manufacturing, the Toyota ing. This sequential list (also called a If this isnt the case, then the second approach may be of interest Production System (TPS) or other names.*4 By the early 1990s, TPS was being heralded as the world-class stan dard for manufacturing operations.5 value stream) represents 11 common quarry processes. Each of these pro- cesses is ripe for Lean and Six Sigma application. There are several areas within Stage I where Lean principles can add value. Lean is concerned with flow There are six approaches to Lean, Rather than attempt to apply Lean improvements and waste reduction. which are segregated into two orien or Six Sigma principles to each of Consider this example. Have you ever tations: flow and tool. Flow-based these processes simultaneously, a watched your loader-man load haul approaches, popularized by Toyota more prudent method is to segregate trucks? Have you ever watched those within its TPS, are more concerned the processes into stages (or phases) haul trucks take shot rock to the pri- with production leveling of product according to their proximity to one mary (or pre-primary surge pile) and return back to the loader? These are good candidates to apply a tool com- monly taught in most engineering type and volume than with waste n. The third flow emphasisis THE THREE DISCIPLINES Kanban-styled pull production. TovotaTHE THREE segregates waste into three catego- ries: muda (non-value added work). muri(waste resulting from the over- burden of people or processes) andp mura (waste resulting from incon Six Sigma is all about reducing product defects and reducing variation in a process. Lean is about reducing schools: cycle time. Cycle-time studies concern themselves with capturing eliminating waste and improving data at various points within a cycle product flow. Lean Six Sigma is ai.e, the time it takes the haul truck to get loaded, travel to the primary dump its load and return to the load- another and the value stream concept er). Studying the cycle time of loading While the grouping of these processes one haul truck can yield some fasci- combination of all the above. tent production processes) These flow approaches indirectly reduce waste. Tool-based approaches can utilize the methods of Kiazen can vary, one approach could be to nating discoveries (continuous improvement). Poke- divide the entire process into these Most quarry managers understand Yoke (mistake proofing) and the commonly known groupings: load, the importance of maintaining haul exploratory tool of the 5-whys (ask haul and convey (Stage I), crushing roads. Thus, the following questions ing Why? at least five times until the and screening (Stage II) and process may be of interest: Can two opposing problems root cause is ascertained). es that involve loading, weighing and trucks pass one another? Are the haul The tool-based approach to Lean ticketing customer trucks (StageIII) roads smooth and level? Have you super elevated your haul road curves Are the haul-truck tires properly inflated? Are the drivers operating the attacks waste directly. Generally, tool- based approaches experience less STAGE I -LOAD, HAUL cultural resistance than do flow-based AND CONVEY approaches, but both present their Currently, there are two philosophies trucks in an optimal and safe manne share of managerial challenges. AGGREGATE INDUSTRY APPLICATION The aggregate industry has been slow to adopt these principles, perhaps because it does not consider itself a true manufacturing industry. Instead of producing components, an aggre iors guide and control the operation. example of cycle time improvement. on improving productivity. One voice Is the grade of the haul roads too steep says to spend capital on bigger and thus requiring long-distance travel in etter plants and equipment. This low gears? All of these questions seek approach works and, provided the to employ the Lean principle of waste company has the capital, can be a removal. What kinds of waste? This viable path to take. However, this type of waste takes the form of unnec- approach does not get to the heart of essary labor hours, equipment hours the problem: how employees behav and fuel usage. Figure 1 offers an gate operation processes larger stone Generally speaking, spending more There may be opportunities to into smaller stone suitable for dozens money requires no employee (man reduce waste from the pit loader as of products across multiple industries agement or hourly) to do anything well. What kinds of waste? Have you in sizes ranging from those visible dramatically different. There are measured the cycle time required to to the naked eye down to microns. exceptions to this rule, such as auto load one truck? Does the loader man

are they blinding over? Once again, one another, getting coffee or chatting QUALITY MONEY, measuring can indicate whether you with the scale office clerkfs? are making the product you most Everything is governed by a pro SHARE need or sending good rock into the cess, and this stage of the value stream Six Sigma proposes a challenge: no base stone pile. Does your operator within a quarry is no different. The more than 3.4 defects per million have to intentionally slow down the challenge is to examine it, study it, units produced is required to arrive at plant because some conveyor belt is improve upon it and control for slip a Six Sigma level. But can you achieve undersized? Are you assisting your page (reversal back to the older, less a lower level of Six Sigma such as a operators and their running of the efficient practices) once the project is Three Sigma or Five Sigma? Yes, you plant by utilizing the latest measuring completed. technology? A holistic examination of The final step within a Six Sigma cost. Most quarries test for aggregate your plant (using industry software, project is called control. It is here gradation, density and/or chemical Six Sigma and Lean principles) may be that employees sign on the dotted line composition based on their custom- warranted to achieve your full return that they understand and agree to fol ers demands or specification limits. on investment. MARGIN AND MARKET can, but with added, unnecessary low procedures. It eliminates the oft With any of these pertinent tests, lets heard, Oh, is that what you meant? I assume that the rock tests positively didnt understand, which can occur and passes, or tests negatively and STAGE II-LOAD OUT, WEIGHING AND TICKETING weeks later and at your expense. Also, fails. In this example, your Six Sigma How often do you get the blame for a having truck cycle data from the yard level can be calculated by comparing construction crew having to wait (and serves as ammunition to respond to the number of test cases that failed costing that company money) because complaints such as, I spent 45 min- versus the number of test cases in their stone trucks are waiting in line utes in the quarry...Without such total (both failed and passed). Once to get loaded, weighed and/or ticketed data, the argument becomes a The you determine the Six Sigma level. you at your quarry? Six Sigma teaches a said/she said scenario. From a cus can move on to calculating the cost of concept called voice of the customer. tomer satisfaction perspective, it is a poor quality (COPQ). and the financial Together with your sales professional, lose-lose situation. visit your customers site and discuss the buying experience that you create. impact on your operation. Yard Take a script with you that can helpRGORE 3: ycle Time on direct your conversation to pertinent areas of your process. Listen to the drivers visiting your quarry as well. Ride with them. While they are wait- ing in line to get loaded, weighed or ticketed, ask them about their interac- tions with your quarry. Is this interac- tion satisfactory? Do they have any ideas for immediate improvement? The answers may shock you. CYCLE TIME ON YARD OLD PROCESS NEW PROCESS This voice-of-the-customer data can help initiate a cycle-time study To uncover hidden possibilities for improvement, start by breaking the customers truck cycle time into its components (see Figure 3). Study the traffic flow of trucks within your yard. Does it flow like it should? Are there bottlenecks? What are the processes in place for vard loaders to follow in loading fairly? Does your operation use technology to its fullest advan- tage? What about ticketing? Is there a lot of time wasted by drivers talking to 5 13 Yard Cycle Events

COVER STORYTMANAGEMENT AN EXAMPLE OF TWO COMPANIES- S AND T The stone accessed by both companies for $11.00 a ton and base stone sells Both companies mine from different has the same density and chemical for $5.75 a ton (See Chart 1.) sides of the same mountain while composition. The difference is in the As this example demonstrates, test- processing from the same formation gradation. Lets assume that 57s sell CHART 1: How to calculate Six Sigma level and COPQ COMPANYS 450 68 15.11 2.5 COMPANYS 25,000 tons of 57s 2.5 3,778 19,835 $238,020 Number of tests Number of failures Percent failure Six Sigma level 500 12 2.40 3.45 COMPANY Monthly production Six Sigma level Tonnage not meeting specs Monthly COPQ Tonnage x (11.00-5.75) Annual COPQ 25,000 tons of 57s 3.45 600 $3.150 $37,800 This example assumes that because of gradation issues, the stone had to be sold at base stone prices, rather than at the premium price Patent Pending The Screening Revolution RhinoWire Welcome to the Smart Screen Performance Productivity+Affordability-PROFITS. - RhinoWire lasts 4-& times longer RhinoWire than wire screens. Reduces costs up to 100% -Unique design reduces plugging and increases output. -Installs just like wire... No conversion costs,no additional hardware. Huge Savings in Labor and Downtime. if you change wire screens every four weeks. in one year youll make approximately one yaanges. wo to th CALL RhinoWire twelve wire changes. with RhinoWire, you only have to make two to three changes Two or three versus twelve... CALL Us!!! RhinoWire TANDEM PROD Circle 111 or visit freeoroductinfo net/rn

ing and applying Six Sigma improve CONCLUSION ment methodologies can produce a Once in place, Lean processes and Six handsome reward. But how does this Sigma principles can have a positive equate to market share? impact on your company, people and Suppose you have a customer who is bidding for a select stone (based on chemical composition) and is very particular about its consistency. One approach is to use marketing/sales efforts to win the contract. Yet, this customer would be more impressed to learn about your quality testing proce- dures to validate high quality claims. profits (see figure 4). As those in other industries will attest, these approaches give a certain segment of the industry a competitive edge.

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