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Bioenergetics latroduction we will discuss how the body produces energy or ATP. At time, the processes may seem In this chapter complex and wi confusing, but once you have down the basics, you will be able to follow the different pathways Chapter Outline Vocabulary check . Nutrients used as fuel during exercise . High-energy phosphates:large amounts of Potential energy . Aerobic ATP production .Anaerobic ATP production Control of Bioenergetics I. Vocabulary Check a. Metabolism:Hotal oall Cellular feadthions b. Aerobic: c. Anacrobic: d. Envame Protains thut phy arvie in the requaton o ebe s (spesd of feaction Classification of Enzymes: almost all enzymes have -ase as a suffix e. Kinases: f. Dehydrogenases: renove hydiouen g. Oxidases: h. Isomerases: II. Nutrients Used as Fuel during Exercise Bivemergsties Cenerti rkis fotes le) ind aus uée fi of energy

a. Carbohydrates (CHO): Each gram of CHO contains 4 kcals of energy i. Types of CHO: 1. Monosaccharides: glucose YPructose 2. Disaccharides: Sucro Se Maltose 3. Polysaccharides: Celluloge t ii. What is glycogen and where is it stored? ii. What is glycogenolysis? iv. What is gluconegenesis? b. Fats: Each gram of fat contains - 9 kcals of energy i. Where is fat stored in the body? ii. What is fat stored as in the body? ii. What compounds form a triglyceride? iv. What is lipolysis? c. Proteins: Proteins contain 4 kcals of energy per gram Proteins normally only contribute a small percentage of the total energy used during exercise i. What compounds form proteins?

TP (adenosine triphosphate) is the immediate source of energy used by the body ATPase is the enzyme that breaks down ATP ATP is broken down by the following reaction: ATP mur: ADP + Pi Because muscle only stores a small amount of ATP, the body must produce new ATP. It mainly does it through: 1. Aerobic ATP Production 2. Anaerobic ATP Production In your own words, describe why it is important to study these energy-producing pathways? IV. Aerobic ATP Production hree main process that are used during Aerobic ATP Production: Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Of these three processes, which are used by each substrate to produce ATP? CHO: Acetyl CoA Fats: Citric Acid Cycle Proteins: NADH/FADH

a. Fat as a Fuel: 1. What is the name of the process that breaks down triglycerides? ii. What is the name of the process that converts fatty acids into Acetyl-CoA? ii. Fatty acids are converted into iv. What happens to the Acety-CoA that is produced by Beta Oxidation? b. Proteins as a Fuel: i. Explain the Alanine cycle. 1. Where does the alanine cycle occur? ii. Proteins can be directly converted in to Acetyl-CoA and NADH. 1. What process breaks down Acetyl-CoA? 2. Where do we process NADH? 3. Is there a potentially harmful by product of directly processing proteins for fuel?

wo phases of glycolysis (please refer to the test for further clarification) What is glycolysis? a. Energy Investment Phase: i. Step 1 Phosphate is added to glucose to trap it in the cell COST 1 ATP If we begin with glycogen, we skip this step COST 0 ATP ii. Step 2: PFK fructose-6-phosphatefructose-1, 6-bisphosphate COST 1 ATP b. Energy Production Phase: The glucose molecule is split into 2 molecules before it enters the Energy Production Phase In the next step, H+ (electrons) are removed from the G3P molecules (See Step 4, p. 53) These H+ are transported by the carrier molecule nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) During glycolysis, 4 ATP are produced. -the 6-carbon molecule is split into two 3-carbon G3P molecules -NAD will be transported to another process. We will discuss this soon! -2 from BPG → 3PG -2 from PEP pyruvate However, remember earlier we had to invest ATP So what is the NET ATP Production during glycolysis: Using Glucose- Using Glycogen- The next phase for a former sugar to be processed would be the Krebs cycle. Only, Acetyl-CoA can enter the Krebs cycle. The last compound of glycolysis is Acetyl-CoA in the mitochondria by this process: . Pyruvate is converted into 3 enzymes (You dont need to know this!) 2 Acetyl-CoA + 2 NADH

What is the primary function of Krebs? a. During each turn of Krebs, what is produced? 2. 3. While both fats and proteins use the Krebs eyele, we are breakdown of sugars (glucose & glycogen) here! going to concentrate on the For every molecule of glucose or glycogen entering glycolysis, 2 Acety-CoA are formed. Each Acetyl-CoA results in one turn of the Krebs cyele! In total, what is produced in Krebs from one glucose molecule? 2. 3. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (ETC): a. In what organelle does the ETC occur? b. What are the electron carriers? o ATP Potential energy is used by the ETC from NADH and FADH to phosphorylate ADP int AD ADe ADP A

e NADH . FADH: d. What accepts the electrons at the end of the ETC? What is produced during the last step of the ETC? e. NEW WAY OF TALLYING ATP: Evidence shows that the traditional way of counting ATP overestimates the NET number of ATP! What causes this overestimation?

Glycolysis: Number of ATP Invested Number of ATP Produced NET ATP from Glycolysis: Number of NADH produced: ATP Converting Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA Number of NADH produced: Krebs Cyele: Number of ATP produced Number of NADH produced: Number of FADH produced 一ATP ETC: Number of NADH: Glycolysis: Pyruvate Acetly-CoA Krebs Cycle: ATP ATP -АТР ATP x 3- x3- Number of FADH from Krebs Cycle: ATP transport: Number of ATP used to transport ATIP Total ATP production: -АТР

cycolysis: Number of ATP Invested Number of ATP Produced NET ATP from Glycolysis: Number of NADH produced: ATP Converting Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA: Number of NADH produced Krebs Cycle: ATP Number of ATP produced: Number of NADH produced: Number of FADH produced: ETC: Number of NADH: Glycolysis: Pyruvate Acetly-CoA Krebs Cycle: ATP ATP ATP ATP x3- Number of FADH from Krebs Cycle ATP transport: ATP Number of ATP used to transport ATP Total ATP production

NEED means that all the processes we have described are running at a higher rate chondria processes have an upper limit on how much can be processes bappens if we send more carrier molecules than the ETC (mitochondria) can handle? hat Anacrobic ATP Production . ATP-PC system: g all out exercise, the first anacrobic system to come into play is the ATP-PC system When is the ATP-PC system used? Write out the reactions of the ATP-PC system? Why is the ATP-PC system able to function so rapidly? 2. 3. b. Glycolysis: Glycolysis can also be used for Anaerobic ATP production The process here is mostly the same EXCEPT . Oxidative metabolism (i.e., Krebs cycle and ETC) takes some time to produce ATP. Sometimes we need energy faster than we can wait for oxidative metabolisnm Remember that the mitochondria upper limit to which it can process the carrier molecules. If the rate of energy demand exceeds the rate carrier molecules can be processed, we need to must BUFFER NADH to continue glycolysis Remember NAD combine with H to form NADH This H must be combined with something so that NAD can be used again (i.e., continue to be used for glycolysis). This is how it is done: Pyruvie acid +NADHe benyarogenas Lactic Acid + NAD

nctabolic pathways have an enzyme considered to be the rate-limiting encyme is the function of rate-limiting enzymes? As a rule, rate-limiting enzymes are 1. Located at the beginning of each pathway 2. Stimulated and/or inhibited by other substances Provide details on each of the following rate-limiting enzymes: 1. ATP-PC: Enzyme: Stimulated: Inhibited: 2. GLYCOLYSIS: Enzyme: Stimulated: Inhibited: 3. KREBS Enzyme Stimulated: Inhibited: 4. ETC Enzyme: Stimulated Inhibited:

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