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Question: help with these questions from nova lab evolution...

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Help with these questions from nova lab evolution
b. Tetrapods are more evolved than non-tetrapods. Tetrapods are more closely related to each other than to non-tetrapods. c. G All of the above origin of whales: In the previous level, you looked at the transition from water to land and the evolution of tetrapods. Several groups of tetrapods went on to make the reverse trip-they headed back to the water. In this level, youll put together a tree that summarizes some of the changes that occurred as a group of mammals, closely related to the modern-day hippopotamus, returned to the sea. Answer the questions below before you move on to Mission 3, DNA Spells Evolution. 8. When did whale ancestors begin living full time in the water? a. After they nursed under water b. After they lost their hind legs c. Before they evolved gills d. Before they began eating a carnivorous diet
9. Whales are tetrapods-but living whales do not have four limbs. What is a more accurate way to describe tetrapods? a. Animals that have at least two limbs b. Animals that descended from a four-limbed ancestor c. Animals that have four limbs at some point in their lives d. Animals that evolved the ability to survive without limbs MISSION 3: DNA Spells Evolution Introductory video: Since its discovery in 1953, DNA has revolutionized the study of evolutionary relationships. Darwin didnt know about DNA generation to the next-he just knew that they were. Were Darwin alive today, hed no doubt be astonished at how you start the first level in this mission, watch the introductory video and answer questions 1-5 below. so he couldnt explain how traits were passed from one much we can learn about the natural world without even leaving the lab. Before For a mutation to affect evolution, it must: 1
One fish, two fish, red fish, lungfish: For a long time, scientists though that coelacanths were the closest living relatives to amphibians. Coelacanths have big fleshy fins and hinged jaws, two traits they share with fossils of ancestral amphibians. When they went to analyze the DNA, however, they got a surprise. Take a look at the data yourself and see what you come up with. Answer the questions below before you move on to the next level, Where the tiny wild things are. position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Great white shark outgroup) Midas cichlid S. American lungfish T- C C W. Indian coelacanth Western clawed frog T CC C-CC A 6. Does the DNA support the hypothesis that the coelacanth is the closest living relative to amphibians, such as frogs? If it does, explain how. If it does not, provide an alternative hypothesis suggested by the DNA data. 7. Which do you consider more convincing evidence, DNA or physical features? Why?
8. To which organism(s) on the tree is the coelacanth most closely related a. Frog b. Lungfish c. Cichlid and shark equally d. Frog and lungfish equally MISSION 4: Biogeography: Where Life Lives introductory video: Life does not stay in one place. Organisms spread out and move around. Plant seeds and fungal spores are carried by the wind and animals cover great distances in search of food. And bacteria are just everywhere. But it isnt just organisms that move-the planets tectonic plates move, too. The goal of biogeography is to piece together all of these movements to discover and explain the past and present distribution of life on Earth. Its a big puzzle with as many moving pieces as there are species that have ever lived. Before you start the first level in this mission watch the introductory video and answer Questions 1-4 below. 1. How do organisms come to live on newly formed volcanic islands? The Galápagos finches are an example of an array of species that: a. Migrated to an island as a group b. Evolved from a single island species c. Interbred to form one new island species d. Each independently migrated to an island 2. What is Pangaea? a. An island in Hawaii b. An ancient supercontinent c. A species of Hawaiian honeycreeper d. An ancient common ancestor of birds 3. 4. Explain how a close relative of an African plant came to be living in the tropical Pacific.
Kangas, gliders, and snakes, oh myl: When a single species diversifies and forms many but closely related species, the process is called adaptive radiation. Galápagos finches adaptive radiation. Adaptive radiations occur as species adapt to slightly different because they live in similar environments? That is call convergent level. Play the level and answer the questions below before moving on to the next mission. 5. Co are the result of related species i the topic of s. But what about the reverse, or when very distantly related species come to look similar and is the topic of this mplete the character matrix below. Place an X if the species has the trait and leave it blank if it stabs to write the location of the species. Some have does not. In the final column, use the species already been filled in for you. Gives birth to Pouch in womb blooded Flying Kangaroo Platypus Rat snake Sugar glider 5. Which of the species in this level represents the outgroup of the others? Explain your answer tree in from the three major groups this level. What are the three groups called, and which animal(s) on the tree belong to each group? 8. If flying squirrels were brought to Australia, what do you predict would happen? a. Theyd compete with sugar gliders for resources b. Theyd form a symbiotic relationship with sugar gliders. c. Theyd interbreed with sugar gliders and produce offspring d. Theyd evolve to pouches and become
MISSION 5:Tree of Life and Death Introductory video: Despite the skyscrapers we build, the medicines we make, and the landscapes we dominate, humans are connected to other living things-and we arent invincible. In fact, some of smallest things of all can cause us tremendous harm. Thankfully, by understanding how we are connected, we can use our giant brains to help fight back. Watch the introductory video and answer questions 1-3 1. What is a parasite? a. An organism that can cause disease in another organism b. An organism that gains energy and nutrients from another organism c. An organism that requires another organism to complete its life cycle d. All of the above 2. What do you think the narrator means when he says, The host and the parasite are always in this really intimate dance together? 3. What is HIV? a. The virus that causes Ebola b. The virus that causes AIDs c. A method of DNA sequencing d. An ancestor of humans and chimps Dawn of a modern pandemic: Viruses are strange, and the more we learn about them, the stranger they seem to get. Considered by many as not quite an organism because they cant reproduce outside of a host or generate their own energy, viruses are everywhere-on every surface and inside every living thing. Contrary to what most people think, however, many viruses are harmless. Some are likely even helpful! HIV, however, is not harmless-at least not to humans. Where did it come from? Figuring that out is your job in this level. Answer the questions below before you move on to the next mission. 1 2 3 45 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 position Chimp SIV-TAN 1 (outgroup) Gorilla SIV HIV-1 group M HIV-1 group N HIV-1 group P Chimp SIV-MB897 Chimp SIV-EK505
4. A Cameroonian woman living in Paris was the first to be diagnosed with HIV-1 P in 2009. Which ape virus is most closely related to HIV-1 P? 5. Based on your completed tree, how can you distinguish HIV-1 M from HIV-1 N? a. HIV-1 M has a C at position 1; HIV-1 N has an A. b. HIV-1 M has an A at position 11; HIV-1 N has a G. c. HIV-1 M has a G at position 14; HIV-1 N has a T. d. HIV-1M has a T at position 7; HIV-1 N has an A. 6. Viruses such as HIV reproduce rapidly. What is the connection between reproduction rate and evolution? MISSION 6: You Evolved Too Introductory video: In his 1871 book, Descent of Man, Charles Darwin predicted that evidence would be found in Africa that would link modern man to apes. Finally, in the 1950s, such a discovery was made by Mary and Louis Leakey in what is today Tanzania. Since then, fossil evidence and DNA analyses have piled on the support. Today, there is no doubt as to our close kinship with chimpanzees, with whom we shared an ancestor about 6-7 million years ago. This mission is all about our evolution over those past 6-7 million years. Before you start the first level in this mission watch the introductory video and answer questions 1-2 based on your background knowledge. 1. Chimpanzees are: a. Less evolved than humans b. Direct ancestors of humans c. The closest living relatives to humans d. Both a and b Which of the following is a correct statement about human evolution? a. Humans did not evolve. b. Humans have evolved and continue to evolve. c. Humans evolved until about 5 million years ago, but no longer evolve. d. Humans have evolved and continue to evolve socially, but not biologically 2.
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