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Question: hi phisology expert please help me answer below 3...

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Hi Phisology Expert ,

Please help me answer below 3 cases studies questions. Please use sicence termological words precise writing but cover wide range aspects/points.



Case study 1 

Klara was due to pick up her two-year-old daughter Bonnie from childcare. They live nearby, so they usually walk home with Klara pushing her daughter in a pram. Today, a storm was expected to pass through their suburb and by the time Klara and Bonnie were out of the childcare centre, heavy rain had already started. Klara started to run up the hill pushing the pram with Bonnie in it, but soon found herself experiencing difficulties breathing. She found it hard to maintain her pace and was breathing faster and deeper. Within minutes she had to stop and bend over to catch her breath, but when she straightened up, she felt dizzy. She walked home the rest of the way. Once there, she climbed two flights of stairs carrying the pram. By the time she entered her apartment, Klara had a strong feeling of nausea and light-headedness. This took about 2 minutes to resolve at rest. The following day Klara visited her local medical clinic where blood tests were done. The following results were obtained:

Parameter Klara’s results  (Reference Range)

RBC 3.69 x 1012/L            (3.8-5.8 x 1012/L)

Hb 88 g/L                         (115-165 g/L)

MCH 0.28                           (27-32 pg)

MCHC 31.3                           (300-350 g/L)

HCT 28                                       (37-47%)

MCV 76                                     (80-100 fL)

WBC 7.8 x 109 /L.                      (4.0-11.0 x 109 /L.)

PLATELETS 300 x 109 /L             (150-400 x 109 /L)

Serum iron 8 µmol/L                (10.0-30.0 µmol/L)

Transferrin 3 g/L                         (2.10 – 3.80 g/L)

% Transferrin saturation 11 %          (15-45%)

Ferritin 20 µg/L                              (30-220 µg/L)


a) Explain the significance of red blood cell parameters and iron studies in Klara’s blood. (Write approx. 250 words)

b) Propose a physiological explanation for the respiratory symptoms experienced by Klara. In your answer explain how cellular respiration is likely to be affected in Klara’s case? (Write approx. 450 words) 

Case study 2

George is a 75-year old retired plumber. Although he is frail and is troubled by his failing kidneys and his heart, he is cheerful, energetic and continues to volunteer in his local community by providing free plumbing services to disadvantaged families. For the past two days, George has felt tired and found it difficult to get out of the bed due to mild muscle ache. He also has a sore throat, occasional dry cough and today woke up with a fever of 38.5 degrees. He phoned his community centre to let them know he was not going to be able to come in today because he was not well. The person who received his call offered to take him to visit his doctor. George accepted the offer and the doctor suspected that George might have developed influenza, to confirm this, the doctor collected a viral swab. 

a) Discuss why George’s doctor collected a viral swab to confirm suspected influenza infection. ( approx. 100 words)

b) Explain why George had a sore throat and cough. (approx. 450 words) .

c) Explain why George developed fever in response to viral infection. ( approx. 200 words)

d) At home, George has ibuprofen and paracetamol in his cupboard. Considering George’s presentation, suggest which medication may be more appropriate. Provide a rationale to support your statement.  

Case study 3 Sam was a front seat passenger, wearing a seat belt, when the vehicle in which he was travelling was struck at high speed by a Nissan Patrol. This occurred at an intersection with both vehicles travelling at an estimated speed of 70 km/hr. The impact to Sam’s vehicle was on the left side, with minimal damage to the passenger compartment noted by ambulance staff at the scene. Sam was transferred unconscious to the local emergency department with suspected traumatic brain injury. Following simultaneous assessment and resuscitation, a CT scan was performed which showed a linear fracture involving the temporal bone, and underlying haematoma.

a) Discuss the importance of the fractured cranium and the underlying haematoma with respect to maintenance of the intracranial pressure and integrity of immune defence barriers in Sam’s case. ( approx. 250 words)

b) Considering the significance of the brain injury, propose which body functions may be compromised in Sam’s case, if brain swelling is extensive. (write approx. 250 words)

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