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I want to redraft the solution, using other words , use your own words don't copy and paste.. don't use handwriting..

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Most parts of dysfunctional behaviour or mental well‐being are influenced by social elements, (for example, sex, social class, race and ethnicity, and family) and social institutions (for example, work markets, and human services associations). The ability to adapt viably to an increasing number of people with psychological illness as well as dementia depend generously on the social arrangements influencing family, work, salary backing and therapeutic care. However, this relationship is further complicated by substance use and/or physical illness.

David Mechanic stated in his research paper, The influence of Social Factors on Mental Health (2002) that 'with the ageing of the population, the cumulative burdens of mental illness are increasing in most societies. Such burdens depend not only on the magnitude of dementia, depression, schizophrenia and other mental illnesses but the types of social supports and institutional arrangements that help to insulate individuals, families and communities from the most disruptive stresses and facilitate functioning.'

Social Determinants of Health and the Health Divide

Macro-level context Wider society Systems Life-course stages Accumulation of positive and negative effects on health and well

A study by the World Health Organisation along with proving how social, economic and physical environments shape mental disorders, highlighted effective measures to reduce the negative aspects of them. Strong evidence shows that many mental and physical health conditions emerge in later life but originate in early life. The diagram above shows the 5 life courses stages ( Prenatal, early years, working and family building and old age).

The bar-graph shows occurrence of common health disorder by household income in England (2007)

Base: all adults 30 25 20 ri e 15 0 10 5 0 Highest 2nd 3rd 4th Lowest Equivalised household income Key: Pale bars: women; dar

'Those lower on the social hierarchy are more likely to experience less favourable economic, social, and environmental conditions throughout life and have access to fewer buffers and supports. These disadvantages start before birth and tend to accumulate throughout life, although not all individuals with similar exposures have the same vulnerabilities; some are more resilient or have access to buffers and supports to mitigate the potential mental health effects of disadvantage and poverty.'

Below is the framework of social factors:

  • Life-course - Prenatal, adolescence, working, ageing, gender
  • Household - Parents' attitude, income, food, sanitation, social support
  • Community - Neighborhood, trust and support, volunteering, neighbourhood crime, infrastructure
  • Local services - health care, clean water, sanitation, the education system
  • Country factors - poverty status, inequality, women empowerment, employment, law, human rights, governance, health care policy.
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