Question: in this context there is a distinction between data isolated...
In this context, there is a distinction between data (isolated facts) and information (organized or summarized data). For example, the answer to the above question may not be stored anywhere but rather needs to be calculated on-the-fly. Such questions illustrate the tremendous value of information and the potential of computerized information systems for organizing and managing information. This led to the introduction of computer-based systems specifically designed to provide a broad spectrum of information to management (management information systems). An information system should be developed with the following goals in mind:
- Provide a systematic and flexible way to store data in a language independent manner
- Ensure data integrity, redundancy, and security
- Provide data analyst with efficient access the needed information
- Offer methods to obtain, transform, and analyze stored data to deduce needed information
In the context of information systems, data refers to all the single items that are persisted, either individually or as a set. Data, stored in information repositories, is rarely useful in its raw form.
For example, in a university application, data is the whole collection of courses, students, addresses, professors, departments, and so on.
Being presented with this mass of numbers will simply overwhelm any data analyst. However, when data is filtered and aggregated, it then becomes information, which is much more useful to users.
For example, if the mass of numbers stored in the banking database above is used to extract the names and addresses of the top ten classes by enrollment, then the university data has been used to provide more useful information.
The first thing Jack did when migrating data to Microsoft Access was to create a set of tables. These tables were then populated with data and tested for accuracy.
1) Did Jack handle the information need correctly?
2) How would you handle such problem if you were to design a database for a University?