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Question: key terms descriptive statistics the area of statistics...

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Key Terms

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Descriptive statistics --- The area of statistics concerned with organizing and summarizing information about a collection of actual observations.

Inferential statistics --- The area of statistics concerned with generalizing beyond actual observations.

Data --- A collection of observations from a survey or experiment.

Quantitative data --- A set of observations where any single observation is a number that represents an amount or a count.

Qualitative data --- A set of observations where any single observation is a word or code that represents a class or category.

Variable --- A characteristic or property that can take on different values.

Constant --- A characteristic or property that can take on only one value.

Independent variable --- A variable that is manipulated by the investigator

Dependent variable --- A variable that is measured, counted, or recorded by the investigator.

Experiment --- Study with an independent and dependent variable.

Correlation Study --- Study with two (or more) dependent variables.

Text Review

There are many reasons why you should study statistics. One is that you will become a more informed reader, able to question statistical reports in newspaper and magazines. A second reason is that the study of statistics will help you to read and understand research reports in your particular area of interest. Finally, you may actually one day be involved in planning a statistical analysis for your own research project, especially if you plan to earn an advanced degree.

There are two types of statistics: descriptive and inferential. When a researcher wants to organize or summarize information about a collection of observations, the older area of statistics, (1)________________________ statistics would be used. When the researcher must generalize beyond the actual observations, then (2)________________________ statistics would be used.

A researcher gathers in the form of individual records called observations. These records could be IQ scores, height, weight, gas mileage of a particular car, length of life span of white rats, dollars of income, trials or frequency of success, or time record of running. A collection of observations is referred to as (3)____________________. In a set of observations, data are (4)___________________.

On the other hand, if a single observation is a word or code that represents a class or category, the data are (5)________________________.

Numbers may be arbitrarily assigned to survey responses such as yes or no replies in order to facilitate computer processing. Numbers may also appear in certain instances where they represent only category or classification. An example would be the number on a player’s football jersey. The number 88 simply indicates that this player is probably a tight end. It does not indicate that he is twice as good a player as number 44, probably a running back. When numbers are used in this way, they represent (6)_________________________ data.

An important distinction to the field of research methods is based on two types of variables. The variable that is manipulated by the researcher is called the (7)______________________ variable, while the (8)______________________ variable is the one measured by the researcher. Investigators conduct experiments using independent variables and dependent variables in order to establish (9)________________________ relationships. Some studies referred to as (10)__________________ use two dependent variables and yield less clear-cut conclusions about cause-effect relationships

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