Question: multiple choice 1 a morbidly obese 38 year old female...
1. A morbidly obese 38 year old female arrived in the emergency room complaining of a severe headache. Her blood pressure on admission was 185/98, pulse 82, respiratory rate 20, and urinalysis unremarkable. This woman’s hypertension resulted from excess:
A) fat inside the blood. This causes an osmotic gradient that is corrected by water moving out of the blood and into the tissues, reducing blood volume, increasing heart rate and causing hypertension.
B) fat inside the blood. This causes an osmotic gradient that is corrected by water moving into the blood, which increases blood volume causing the hypertension.
C) adipose tissue that pushes against the outside of blood
vessels causing them to become compressed and forcing the heart to
pump harder to push the blood through the narrowed vessels.
D) adipose tissue that is highly vascular. The longer vessels growing into the tissue increase resistance and blood pressure.
2. One reason that uncontrolled diabetic patients suffer from hypertension is because excess glucose in the blood:
A) causes the muscle cells of the heart wall to become sticky,
impeding their ability to pump efficiently, causing
B) attracts sodium ions that excite the heart making it beat faster causing hypertension.
C) causes it to become very thick and viscous. The heart must pump with much greater force to push the thick blood out, eventually leading to heart wall thickening and hypertension.
D) causes an osmotic imbalance, which is corrected by water moving out of the blood. In response to the lowered blood volume the heart will beat faster causing the hypertension.
3. A seventy year old male with chronic hypertension was admitted to the hospital for cardiac catheterization after failing a stress test. Results of the catheterization indicated severe arteriosclerosis in the major vessels supplying the heart muscle. An explanation for his hypertension would be:
A) arteriosclerosis that caused excess water to move into the
blood vessels and increased the blood volume.
B) plaque deposits within the vessels that block calcium ions from leaving the blood and entering the heart, increasing the heart rate and contractility which together caused the hypertension.
C) plaque deposits within the vessels reduced the amount of blood being delivered to the cardiac muscle cells and increasing the heart rate.
D) the buildup of plaque inside the blood vessel walls that prevented water from entering the blood, reducing blood volume and causing the heart rate to increase.