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need help, in summary, The Relation Between Eating- and Weight-Related Disturbances and Depression in Adolescence: A Review the article?

Depression often emerges during adolescence

and persists into adulthood. Thus, it is critical to study risk

factors that contribute to the development of depression in

adolescence. One set of risk factors that have been recently

studied in adolescent depression research is eating- and

weight-related disturbances (EWRDs). EWRDs encompass

negative cognitions related to one’s body or physical

appearance, negative attitudes toward eating, and unhealthy weight control behaviors. However, there have been no

comprehensive reviews of EWRDs and depression research

that are contextualized within developmental frameworks

of adolescent depression. Thus, this review will summarize

research findings on the relation between EWRDs and

depression in adolescence using a cognitive vulnerability

developmental framework. First, a brief overview of epidemiological findings on depression is provided in order to

highlight the importance of examining depression in adolescence. Second, a cognitive vulnerability developmental

framework that can be used to conceptualize depression in

adolescence is described. Next, theories and findings on

EWRDs and depression in adolescence are summarized

within this framework. Research limitations and suggestions for future research are provided. Finally, the implications

of this review related to the assessment, intervention, and

prevention of depression in adolescence are provided.

Keywords Adolescent development Depression

Risk factors Eating- and weight-related behavior

Eating- and weight-related cognitions

Depression is a common mental health issue facing children, adolescents, and adults and has numerous health,

economic, and quality of life implications. Depression

often emerges during adolescence (ages 12–18; Arnett

1999; Kessler et al. 2001) and recurs or persists into

adulthood (Lewinsohn et al. 2003). The consequences of

depression during adolescence include an increased risk for

various maladaptive behaviors, such as substance abuse

and suicidal behavior, as well as interpersonal, academic,

and psychosocial problems (Birmaher et al. 1998; Merikangas and Angst 1995; Nolen-Hoeksema et al. 1992).

Thus, adolescence represents a critical time to study risk

factors that contribute to the development of depression.

One set of risk factors that have been recently studied in

adolescent depression research is eating- and weight-related disturbances (EWRDs; e.g., Stice and Bearman 2001).

EWRDs are defined as those negative or maladaptive

cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors directly or indirectly

related to eating and weight. Maladaptive eating cognitions

include negative eating attitudes (e.g., believing that popularity with peers is related to how much one weighs and

that peers prefer to date thin people), body dissatisfaction

(e.g., preference to be a smaller size), and focusing on a

thin or muscular ideal body type. Maladaptive eating

behaviors include dietary restraint and overeating (e.g.,

having the desire to eat when feeling lonely), bingeing, and

use of substances to control one’s weight (e.g., diet pills,

steroids, cigarette smoking; Crow et al. 2008). EWRDs are

generally conceptualized as less severe dysfunctional eating cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors compared to clinical symptoms of eating disorders (e.g., severe restriction

of caloric intake as in anorexia nervosa and bingeing and

purging as in bulimia nervosa). Although there is growing evidence linking EWRDs and depression in adolescence,

there have been no comprehensive reviews of this relation that contextualize findings within empirically supported

developmental frameworks used to understand depression

in adolescence. One key theory used to understand

depression in adolescence is the cognitive vulnerability

framework (Abela and Hankin 2008). Given that depression often emerges during adolescence, a review of the

relation between EWRDs and depression in adolescence

using a developmentally based cognitive vulnerability

the framework represents a valuable contribution to the adolescent depression literature.

Thus, the purpose of the current review was to identify

studies that have investigated the relation between EWRDs

and depression in adolescence and contextualize the findings within a comprehensive developmental model of

adolescent depression. The organization of the review is as

follows. First, the importance of examining depression in

adolescence is underscored by means of a brief overview of

epidemiological findings. Second, a developmentally based

cognitive vulnerability framework that can be used to

conceptualize depression in adolescence is described. After

describing the search strategy to identify studies examining

the relationship between depression and EWRDs, theories and

findings on the relation between EWRDs and depression

are presented and are then integrated into a novel etiological model of adolescent depression. Research limitations and directions for future research are also presented.

Lastly, given that major depression is the third most disabling condition in the world and the second most in the

developed world (World Health Organization 2008),

implications for assessment, intervention, and prevention

initiatives related to adolescent depression are provided.

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