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Need help on anatomy homework.LAB 1 Blood Blood plasma, the liquid portion of the blood, comprises about 55% of the b od volume in a healthy adult (Figure 1.1). Plasma is composed of etc.), hormones, and nitrogenous wastes (urea, ammonia, etc.). The pH of blood plasma must be kept within narrow limits water, electrolyteshons (Na, K*,etc.), gases (0, CO,).proteins, nutrients (glucose, vitamins, minerals 1.3S to 1.15 so that the proteins and enzymes in the blood and surrounding tissues remain functional. The osmolarity of blood plasma is constantly monitored by the brain and if by the kidneys to maintain an osmolarity of-280- salt and/or water are mOsm/L All formed elements of blood originate from hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through a process ies called volume composed of erthyrocytes is called the hematoc called Erythrocytes (or red blood cells (RBCs)) are the most abundant formed element. The percentage of whole blood %în men which averages primary function of erythrocytes is to transport O, and CO. This is made possible by a special molecule which contains iron (Fe2+) atoms that bind oxygen with high affinity. Erythrocytes If the RBC count is too high, a person is said to (Figure 1.1). The are formed from HSCs by a process called have Incontrast, a significant deficiency of RBCsis called is a hereditary disease that occurs mostly in people of African es for a form of hemoglobin that does not bind oxygen very well. When deoxygenated this e deformed into a sickle shape, which then block blood vessels and cause intense hemoglobin causes RBCs to becom pain. Platelets are the second most abundant formed element although they are far less numerous than erythrocytes. mHscs by a process called megekery and play a major role by causing vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation, and coagulation. Unfortunately in or unwanted clotting can be problematic. Most strokes and heart attacks are due to abnormal clotting of blood in an unbroken vessel. If a blood clot breaks loose and starts traveling through the blood stream it is called an supplying blood to the heart, lung, or brain. This can be extremely dangerous since the clot may lodge in a small vessel Leukocytes (or white blood cells (WBCs) are the least abundant type of formed element but there are many different types of leukocytes that play unique roles in protecting the body against infection and disease. All leukocytes are formed from HSCs by a process called AIDS), the WBC count can reach dangerously low levels leaving the patient at serious risk for infection. This condition In certain diseases (measles, mumps, polio is called infection, allergy, or some other condition. In th determine which type of leukocyte is elevated. Because each type of leukocyte plays a specific role in immunity, kn which cell levels are highest may provide clues as to if a condition is caused by a bacteria, virus, parasite, or aller of the hemopoietic tissues can produce a condition called and their precursors produced is extremely high. normal bone marrow and a person suffers from a deficiency of nor therefore vulnerable to opportunistic infections, anemia, and hemorrhage An elevated WBC count called , may indicate is circumstance, it is useful to have a differential WBC count performed to gen. Cancer where the number of leukocytes This can be especially dangerous because these immature cells replace mal leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Patients are Leukocytes are classified as either absorb stain and become conspi granulocytes or agranulocytes depending on if they have specific granules that cuously visible under the microscope. The granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutrophils are the most common leukocyte compris ng 60-70% of the total leukocyte population. Ther primary function is to destroy bactera. E sinophils tote leukocytes) fight parasitic infections and cause allergic reactions. Basophils, the least common leukocyte (0.5-1%), release histamine (a vasodilator) and heparin (an anticoagulant). recognize and destroy infected cells and coordinate the immune response, and B cells that secrete antibodies. Mon (38% total leukocytes) function only after they leave the bloodstream and transform into large cells in the tissu The agra ulo ytes are lymphocytes and monocytes. Lymphocytes (25-33% total leukocytes), nclude T cells that onocytes uch macrophages. Their job is to destroy foreign and dead cells, and serve as APCs (antigen presenting cells). Yu wll learn m ll more about lymphocytes and monocytes (macrophages) when we study the immune system in lecture.

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