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Question: of the outgoing terrestrial energy that is radiated from the...

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Of the outgoing terrestrial energy that is radiated from the Earths surface to its atmosphere, only a fraction of this energy (approximately 12%) escapes into outer space, which allows the Earth to cool Approximately 5% of outgoing terrestrial energy is captured and absorbed by the greenhouse gases in Earths atmosphere. Greenhouse gases, which have the ability to absorb and emit terrestrial energy within the Earths atmosphere, were first introduced in Chapter 1. Recent surges in greenhouse gas concentrations due to anthropogenic activities such as industry and agriculture lie at the heart of modern-day climate change. As discussed in Chapter 1, atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations have been steadily increasing since the last century: For example, current atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are at their highest levels since approximately 800,000 years ago. In addition, global temperature measurements have displayed a steady warming trend since 1880, which has increased in proceeding decades, and the most recent decades of this period have been the warmest. Greenhouse gases, when at natural levels, are essential for life on the Earth; their ability to absorb terrestrial radiation allows for the Earth to maintain temperate climate conditions. The current anthropogenic surge in greenhouse gases, however, disrupt the Earths energy balance, and whenever there is an imbalance caused by an increase in greenhouse gases, the Earths climate changes by warmingWhile greenhouse gases are able to absorb terrestrial radiation very well overall, this dynamic only occurs for radiation with select wavelength properties. Along with carbon dioxide, we also established in Chapter 1 that water vapor is another prominent greenhouse in the Earths atmosphere. In fact, water vapor is the strongest greenhouse gas in the Earths atmosphere (accounting for about 60% of the greenhouse effect under clear skies), while carbon dioxide is the next-strongest greenhouse gas (account for about 26% of the greenhouse effect under clear skies). Fig. 8 displays the absorption percentage rates of water vapor (shaded in blue) and carbon dioxide (shaded in pink) for radiation of various wavelengths. Use this information to answer the subsequent sets of questions. -water vapor window 100%- H,O co 0% S 6 7 8910 20 30 Wavelength (um) Fig, 8: Terrestrial radiation is more easily absorbed by the Earths greenhouse gases at some wavelengths than others. Greenhouse gases are typically ineffective at absorbing radiation with about 8-12 micrometer wavelengths. Radiation at such wavelengths is able to more easily escape into outer space through the atmospheric window, where water vapor and carbon dioxide do not absorb much radiation. [8Question 23 Given that the Earth primarily emits terrestrial radiation with wavelengths of 10 micrometers, is most of the radiation at this wavelength captured through absorption by the Earths greenhouse gases? Answer Yes or No Word AnswerQuestion 24 For which of the following radiation wavelengths is water vapor a good absorber? O A 4 micrometers O B 6 micrometers O c 10 micrometers O D None of theseQuestion 25 For which of the following radiation wavelengths is carbon dioxide a good absorber? O A 3.5 micrometers О В 6micrometers О с 8micrometers O D None of these

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