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Question: paraphrase the whole paraphrase should be written in 215 words...

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 The whole paraphrase should be written in 215 words.

In paraphrasing, you should represent the original, be accurate and not add any comment or opinion of your own; keep your own views for critiquing. Try to use alternative words for those in the original so that your version does not look or sound like the original but carries essentially the overall message in a much shorter form. While you may either agree or disagree with the points made, your job is not to critique the article or alter this passage’s meaning in any way. Your job is to produce an accurate summary of the text which clearly and concisely conveys the key points.

1.Use Own words with not extracts in any formats fro the original

2.The main message of the text and all key points are extracted .

3. Avoid plagiarism(Do not use online tools),will be detected.


The responsibility of scientists to society

Science and the technologies it has spawned form the basis of all human activity, from the houses that we live in, the food that we eat, the cars that we drive, to the electronic gadgetry in almost every home that we use to remain informed and entertained.

In its simplest definition, science can be thought of as the pursuit of truth. Truth that stills holds true without our existence, obtained methodically through observations, experimentation and research. The motivations of scientists can vary, from the selfless desire of understanding to the application of scientific knowledge to benefit other’s health, the environment, and industries. Not all Scientists however follow a path paved with good intentions, as many can be corrupted by personal gain or political conflict, ignoring the wellbeing of humanity for their own recognition and power.

The responsibilities of scientists are not as clear-cut as those associated with say law or medicine, where the aim underpinning the profession is more clearly defined. Jacob Bronowski, a British Mathematician, says: “The best science is driven by an insatiable curiosity for how the world works. Applications are secondary”. However, it is debatable whether science with no application to mankind is of any worth, however many will argue that applications can proliferate from information that was found without applications in mind. Such circumstances are exemplified by quantum mechanics, a field of physics which at first had no known practical use. Several technologies are now owed to quantum mechanics such as the microchip, electron microscope and magnetic resonance imaging, despite the fact that the original research was not performed in pursuit of these technologies. 

Many will argue that the responsibility of scientists is to obtain useful knowledge in such a manner that will not cause any distress, harm or detriment to those involved with the experimentation that acquires the knowledge. Conversely, there may be situations in which the best outcomes can only be efficiently reached if there is some form of harm or loss of life. For scientists there is a continuous battle between what is ethically acceptable and whether breaching these ethics will benefit humanity in the long term.  Generally animal life is not held with as high regard to that of humans, but this is not to say that the responsibility of scientists to acquire knowledge is above respecting other life forms. It would seem impractical to avoid loss of life completely as several fields of science would be rendered impossible, for example – stem cell research and organ growth, however, needless loss of life should be avoided.

If scientists do have responsibilities to society, who is to impose these responsibilities upon them? Imposing limitations on scientists and how they go about their work will always be difficult to control. In times of hostility, is it a scientist’s responsibility to support the security of their home nation, despite the fact they will be putting other nations at risk? War highlights several issues in terms of the responsibilities of scientists – especially as it is impossible for scientists to foresee all the applications of their work, as unforeseen technology able to manipulate their discoveries may be developed beyond their control - and beyond their lifetime. 

To maintain the respect and integrity of the profession, honesty, public awareness and peer assessment is an essential responsibility that scientists must execute in their work if they are to maintain public support and trust. The truth scientists obtain should be impartial, accurate and shared openly amongst everyone, not just the general scientific community. Scientists should not be solely motivated by an application of their work or to gain public attention but also the mere pleasure of understanding. They should make a combined effort to predict the implications of their work, and with the aid of the government, their knowledge should be delivered in a way that will benefit mankind, not just a few men alone.

[Adapted from an essay from University College London].


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