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Question: please answer a and b...

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Please answer A and B

1. Constructing phylogenies is a basic technique used in numerous fields of biology. One way to construct trees is using a distance-based method. In this method, the number shared derived homologous traits closely related. We can determine whether a traitis ancestral or derived by comparing each taxa to an outgroup. Traits The following character table summarizes some features of a group of plants called mudworts and their outgroup, the blue sandwort. is used to determine which organisms are most shared with the outgroup are presumed to be ancestral. r of Petal Spots on Leaves Stems Stems FlowerSeeds Taxa -color--petals- Blue No succulent-ー5piny todor--in fruit Fruit No Sweet Many Dry No Sweet Many Dry No Sweet Many Dry No Putrid Many Dry Yes Sweet Many) Dry One Dry No Sweet) Many) Julcy Petals Smooth Sandwort (OUTGROUP) Blue No Smooth Yes Smooth Smooth Yes Smooth Red Yes Hairy Hairy Mudwort Mudwort Stinky Mudwort Spiny Mudwort Tiny Red Yes Yes No No Sweet Tasty Mudwort S Red Yes No A. Using the character states above, fill in the similarity matrix of shared derived traits below. For each cell, fill in the number of derived homologous traits the two taxa share (remember, traits shared with the blue sandwort are ancestral). Refer to the Lecture 2 PowerPoint (slide 29) if you are confused (1 point). Taxa Sandy Spotted Stinky Spiny Tiny Tasty Blue Sandwort outgroup 0 0 0 Sandy Spotted Stink in Tiny

B. Using the similarity matrix in part 1, reconstruct the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree using the tree below. Label the tips of each branch with the correct taxa (Hint: Taxa that share the greatest number of derived characters are likely sister taxa). (2 points) NOTE-WORK OUT THE ANSWER ON THE PRACTICE PHYLOGENIES ON PAGE #6 BEFORE FILLING OUT THE PHYLOGENY BELOW Phylogenetic Tree: ピ C. Using a tick mark, MARK AND LABEL each derived character onto the tree in the most parsimonious arrangement (the simplest explanation is probably correct). (1 point)

D. The Stinky and Sandy blue mudw mudwort both have a red fruit. The spiny, tasty, tiny. spotted, and h orts have green fruit. Given the phylogeny you determined above, using the concept of parsimony determine if the red fruit color is more likely to be a homologous characteristic or an analogous characteristic. Fully explain your answer. (2 pts) E. A taxonomist decides to classify mudworts based on your phylogeny, and comes up with the following scheme: Spotted + Sandy mudworts - Genus A Tiny+ Tasty mudworts Genus B Spiny + Stinky mudworts - GenusC Does this taxonomic scheme accurately reflect the evolutionary relationships of these organisms based on your phylogeny? Fully explain your answer (2 pts) Note: by accurately reflect the evolutionary relationships 1 am asking: Are sported and sandy more closel relats to each other then they ane to the ather mudwortst Are tiny and tasty are more closely related to each other then they are to the other mudworts? Are spiny and stinky are more closely related to each other then they are to the other more mudworts?

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