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1. Clostridium and Streptococcus are both catalase-negative. Streptococcus grows by fermentation. Why is Clostridium killed by oxygen, whereas Streptococcus is not? 2. Assume that after washing your hands, you leave 10 bacteria cells on a new bar of soap. You then decide to do a plate count of the soap after it was left in the soap dish for 24 hours. You dilute 1 g of the soap 1:106 and plate it on standard plate count agar. After 24 hours of incubation, there are 168 colonies. How many bacteria were on the soap? How did they get there? 3. What is bacterial growth? Name and describe the four phases of bacterial growth. Why is growth called exponential? What causes the pattern of the growth curve? 4. Describe at least two extreme environments and types of extremophiles that live there. Could anaerobes and aerobes coexist in the same habitat? Why or why not? 5. Explain how one might determine the nutrient requirements of a microbe from Mars. If, after exhausting various nutrient schemes, it still does not grow, what other factors might one take into account? 6. Contrast two different methods of detecting and counting microbial populations. What are their advantages and disadvantages?

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