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Exercise 2. Membrane Dynamics: semipermeable barriers (This is to help you understand how membranes can act as barriers, even though they are fluid.) A. Substances in solution will diffuse from areas of higher concentration, to areas of lower concentration. A lipid bilayer can act as a barrier to that diffusion, but it is not a complete barrier Certain molecules can slip through membranes, and cross them by diffusion. How quickly they diffuse through membranes depends on their chemical structure (size polarity, charge, etc.). Place the following molecules (listed alphabetically) in order based on their diffusion through a membrane from easiest (higher rate) to most difficult (lower rate) RNA (a polynucleotide) B. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through an a membranes from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. Describe the movement of water and physical effects experienced by cells placed in the following solutions: a. A solution with a higher concentration of solutes than the cytosol (hypertonic) b. A solution with the same concentration of solutes as the cytosol (isotonic) c. A solution with a lower concentration of solutes than the cytosol (hypotonic) C. The bacterium Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin, which affects the cells of the gut epithelium by stimulating the export of chloride ions (CI), as well as secretion of sodium (Na*) and potassium (K) ions into the lumen of the intestine. Provide an explanation based on lead to the massive diarrhea that accompanies a cholera infection.
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