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Question: please help with the attached images i am unable to...

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Please help with the attached images! I am unable to figure this out!
UIl, ll0g, and turtles have the ancestral state. 6:0-2 Activity: For the remaining character trees at left, add the characters and taxon labels, and fill in the blanks in the text below (add name of taxon, you can use abbreviations, such as FI, FR, T, etc.) by referring to Tables 1 and 2. Character tree 7 (hemipenes) groupand together through sharing hemipenes while all other taxa have an absence of this character. Character tree 8 (gizzard) shows thatand possess a gizzard, which is absent in all other taxa. BIO150 2004/05
Reconstructing Evolutionary Relationships S- Character tree 9 (waste type).一一 - have uric acid as waste type, whereas and share the ancestral character and ray-finned fichh of urea as a waste type. Character tree 10 (hind digita) is another multistate character. In this case, based on the information provided from the fossil record, we have confidence in the fact that four hind digits evolved from five hind digits, and not from zero, hence we treat this character as ordered G.e, 10:0.1 and 10:1. 2). have four hind digits, whereas and , all have five digits and and andhave none. Character tree 11 (bladder) groups and together (they do not have a bladder) and all other taxa are basal, as with character 8. We now have 11 character trees. Building the Phylogenetic Tree How do we combine all the character trees into one single tree?We suggest that you start by finding a character that defines the in and separates it from the out-group. Do this by identifying those derived haracetns that only members of the inrgroup possess Gie, shared derived -group trees, we can see that two characters separate the in-group from out-group. Activity: The first step is to start building your final tree by plotting, on tree B, the two characters that define the in group. Character 2 is done for you. What is the other character that defines the in group? Add this character to trees B to G The next stage is to see if any character trees support a grouping that the out group). From our character trees, we can see that there are two character trees that show this pattern. Character 1(1) defines all taxa except frogs, and character 1001) defines all except snakes. How do you decide now which one to use?Look to the other character trees, and see if there are any that support a grouping of frogs with other taxa. to the exclusion of snakes:or a grouping of snakes with other taxa to the exclusion of frogs. You will see that there are several characters that support a grouping of snakes with other taxa (e0), 70),9l, while BI0150 2004/05
8-6 Reconstructing Evolutionary Relationships no other character supports a grouping of frogs with anything else to the exclusion of snakes. Progs are hence the most basal of the terrestrial vertebrates, hence tree C. Add character 1 to tree C (as well as character 5). Next look for a character that defines all taxa, except fish, frogs, and at least one other taxon, Character trees 3 and,--do this; character states 3(2) and are present in all taxa except fishes, frogs, and mammala. (Feathers are a unique derived character in birds) When you add these characters to tree Cyou obtain tree D. Note that you must also include a step each for characters 3(1), 3(3), and 3(4). These are all unique derived characters, and although unique derived characters are not useful characters for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships, they can tell us something important about the life and evolution of our taxa. The multi states ofcharacter 3 have been added to tree D, but you must add character_ The next characters to add would be character 6, which pulls off frogs, mammals, and turtles with the out group. When you add character 6 to tree D you obtain tree E. We must also add character state 6(2) an a unique derived character in mammals. Next, look and see if there are character trees that show the relationships of the unresolved taxa. In our case, character treesand_do this, supporting birds and crocodiles as being sister groups. This illustrates the point that if you find multiple character trees that support the same relationship then this relationship will probably be upheld in the final tree. When we add character treesand totree E we obtain tree F You can see that we still have not been able to resolve the relationships between snakes, lizards, and the monophyletic group formed by birds+crocodiles. We can do this by adding characterwhich gives us tree G. Now we have a tree that includes all taxa. However, we have not added all characters. We then have to add the remaining two characters to tree G. When you build a cladogram for the first time,it may be easier to leave the multistate characters last (although you can not always do this). Character 10 evolves state 10(1) in the ancestor of the land vertebrates, and state 10(2 in the ancestor of crocodiles and birds, and has a reversal to 0 (from 1) in snakes (as shown in tree H).
Table I. Character states for seven terrestrial vertebrates and ray-finned fish. ppearBedyMetaIntermal BO abeent ures present no lab entl u real 5 present no abeet aeid so prent acid Piah r 5 preent Turtles preent imbsecto present 4 abeent abeent acid 4 abeent urea 5present 0 present no preenteid Mammals pent mbs hairndopret Sakes Present Now that you have gathered the original data, use the out-group comparison method to polarize the characters, By dofinition, the out group taxon, fish, is coded O for eachcharacter. Any character state of an ingroup taxa which is the same as the out-group is thus coded 0, and ifit is differentfrom the out group it is a derived character and is coded 1 (or if it is multistate, 2, 3, ete.). Out-Group Comparison Activity: Based on the characteristics exhibited by each taxon, complete Table 2. The multistate characters have been coded for you. Table 2. Character states recoded with respect to the out group. 10 Fish Frogs Turtles Crocodiles Lizards Birds 0 Mammals Snakes 2 O BIO150 2004/05
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