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Question: question 1 what did bactrian menander and kushan ruler kanishka...

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Question 1

What did Bactrian Menander and Kushan ruler Kanishka have in common?

* Both men were descendents of Alexander the Great’s generals.

* Both men were defeated by the Guptas as they built a new empire.

*Both men abdicated their thrones to enter religious houses as ascetics.

* Both men converted to Buddhism and promoted it in their kingdoms.


Question 2

How did the invasions, and attempted conquest of Alexander, aid Chandragupta to build his empire in northern India?

* Alexander was not successful in conquering northern India but he did disrupt Nanda’s empire.

*Chandragupta was able to take advantage of Nanda’s weakness and consolidate smaller states and provinces under his authority.

*When Chandragupta had enough of Nanda’s client states under this control, he had Magadha surrounded and was able to conquer the Nanda Empire.

* All of the above.


Question 3

Which of the following was NOT one of the methods used by Ashoka to manage and governe his large and diverse empire?

* He divided his empire into four regions, and appointed a governor to represent his interests.

* Ashoka appointed roving commissioners to monitor everyone’s morality and happiness.

* Ashoka used his Hinduism to undermine dharma and to maintain order.

*Economically Ashoka also unified coinage, andweights and measures, which aided trade in his empire.


Question 4

In what way was the Gupta dynasty NOT associated with Hinduism?

* The Gupta rulers were Hindus, and emphasized the king-centered hierarchy that was central to Brahman Hinduism.

*Because the Hindu class system and rituals emphasized the centrality of the kings, the Gupta emperors used Hinduism to focus attention on their role as that center.

* Under their patronage, the Gupta promoted Hinduism and helped to sponsor Hindu art and literature.

*The Gupta shifted focus from the worship of Vishnu and Shiva to the exclusive use of Vedic ritual sacrifice to legitimize their rule.


Question 5

Why were the southern kingdoms more stable after the collapse of the Gupta, c. 600 CE, than they had been before?

*The Gupta had attempted to invade and conquer the south.

*When the Gupta Empire began to weaken and be distracted by the Hunas, Central Asian nomads, they were less focused on the southern kingdoms.

*As the Gupta declined, the southern kingdoms were able to centralize their own power and even expand their authority over one another.

*Many of the southern kingdoms and people converted to Hinduism which provided cultural stability.

* All of the above.


Question 6

What were the goals of the Upanishadic Brahmans, and of the texts they left behind?

*The Upanishadic writers thought that the Vedic religion had become too distracted due to the thousands of gods.

*The Upanishads sought a monist, rather than polytheistic approach, and a first principle or universal truth that did not require the worship of many different gods.

*The Upanishadic writers were hermits who wanted to reach unity with the universal self, removing them from the cycle of rebirth and redeath that characterized earthly life.

* Salvation in this system was moksha, escape from reincarnation, achieved through meditation and brief aphorisms.

* All of the above.


Question 7

Which of the following is NOT descriptive of the Four Noble Truths and the relief of want?

* The eightfold path is to avoid any kinds of extreme behaviors that might build up more karma requiring more lives.

*This is a direct response to the more ascetic traditions, such as Jainism.

* Buddhism is a reaction to the Vedic traditions of rituals and prayers.

*The goal of the dharma is to find release from fear.


Question 8

Which of following was NOT a reason that Buddhism had more adherents than Jainism?

* Moderation made Buddhism more attractive to more people.

*Jainism was very ascetic oriented and required more extreme practices.

* Buddhism proved to be more flexible, particularly in the Mahayana tradition.

* As Buddhism interacted with other religions and cultures, it did not adapt or incorporate any of those traditions.


Question 9

How did the expansion of Indian culture to Asia (China and Japan) and Southeast Asia NOT differ?

* In both areas, Buddhism spread along with trade.

*Merchants established outposts throughout Asia, along with missionaries.

*In Southeast Asia, the Indian influence included the spread of Hindu ideas.

*In East Asia, outposts spread Hindu ideas to both China and Japan.


Question 10

Which of the following was NOT true of the options Indian religion and literature offered to women?

*Both Buddhism and Jainism offered the possibility of equal opportunity for salvation.

*Epic and popular literature, often religious in nature, featured powerful women who were depicted as resourceful andoften came to the aid of men.

*In the Gupta period, Hindu practitioners turned more often to female deities than in previous periods.

*Women’s sexuality and fertility were key elements of Buddhist writing and visual arts.

*Hinduism celebrated female fertility and sexuality NOT as symbolically representing fertility in general.

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