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Question: questions 10 14 are based on the following situation...

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Questions 10 - 14 are based on the following situation.
The F2 generation from a dihybrid cross produced a total of 356 tall plants with purple flowers, 124 tall plants with pink flowers, 107 short plants with purple flowers, and 22 short plants with pink flowers.

Cross-fertilize F1 Self-fertilize 356 124 107



You will use the Chi-square goodness-of-fit test to determine whether these values are significantly different from the expected values.
In order to do this, we must first identify a hypothesis. For a genetic cross, we postulate what phenotypic ratio we would expect and then we perform the Chi-square goodness-of-fit test to evaluate how well our observed and expected numbers agree.
For this dihybrid cross, you decide to assume that the plants in our F2 generation follow a phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 and then let the results from the Chi-square goodness-of-fit test tell you if this prediction is accurate.
10. Fill in the following table with the expected numbers (E) of plants from the F2 generation for the phenotypes listed. Please note that the observed numbers (O) have been inputted for you already. (5 marks)
(HINT: You will need to use your hypothesis to perform these calculations.)
When inputting the numbers that you calculated for the expected (E), please round to the nearest whole number (e.g. 52).
Phenotype Observed (O) Expected (E)
Tall plant with purple flowers 356
Tall plant with pink flowers 124
Short plant with purple flowers 107
Short plant with pink flowers 22
Total number of plants in the F2 generation 609 **
Make sure your total number of plants are the same for the observed and expected columns (use this to check your expected calculations)

This question is based on the information provided in Questions 10.

Please note that on an examination, you will NOT be given the formula for the Chi-square value.

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11. What is the Chi-square value between the observed and expected offspring in the F2 generation for this dihybrid cross? Please give answer to 3 decimal places



This question is based on the information provided in Questions 10-11.

Please note that on an examination, a Table of Critical values of the chi-square distribution will be provided.


TABLE 3.4 Critical values of the X2 distribution df 0.995 0.975 o.000 0.051 0.216 0.484 0.831 1.237 0.05 0.025 5.024 7.378 9.348 11.143 12.832 14.449 16.013 17.535 19.023 20.483 21.920 23.337 24.736 26.119 27-488 0.016 0.211 0.584 0.455 2.706 4.605 6.251 3.841 5.991 7.815 9.488 11.070 12.592 4.067 15.s07 6.635 9.210 11.345 13.277 7.879 10.597 12.838 0.010 0.207 0.412 0.676 0.989 3.357 4.351 5.348 6.346 7.344 8.343 9.342 10.341 11.340 12.340 5 1.610 2.204 2.833 9.236 10.645 12.017 13.362 14.684 15.987 17.275 18.549 19.812 16.750 18.548 20.278 21.955 23.589 25.188 26.757 28.300 29.819 31.319 32.801 16.812 18.475 20.090 1.735 2.156 2.603 3.074 3.565 4.075 2.700 3.247 3.816 4,404 5.009 5.629 6.262 4.168 4.865 5.578 6.304 7.042 16.919 18.307 9.675 21.026 22.362 13.3392 1.06423.685 23.209 24.725 26.217 27.688 14 8.547 14.339 22.30724.996 30.578 robability: df, degrees of freedom. ost scientists assume that when Ps 0.0S, a significant difference exists between the observed and expected values in a chi-square test.
12. Please answer the following:

(a) What is the degrees of freedom for this dihybrid cross?
(1 mark)
(b) What is the probability associated with your calculated chi-square value for this dihybrid cross? (2 marks)

The following question is based on question 10-13

13. Please answer the following based on your Chi-square goodness-of-fit test results.

(a) Is the difference between the observed and expected numbers of progeny in the F2 generation the result of chance? Do your results support the hypothesis given above in Question 10? Answer yes or no. (0.5 mark)
(b) Briefly explain how you arrived at the answer given in part (a). (1.5 marks)

The following is based on the information provided in Questions 10 - 13

14. Please answer the following based on your Chi-square goodness-of-fit test results.

(a) Do you think the genes for plant height and flower colour are linked? Answer yes or no. (0.5 mark)
(b) Briefly, explain how you arrived at the answer given in part (a), making reference to Mendel's law of independent assortment. (1.5 marks)





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