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Question: researchers were interested in the effects of a management by...

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Researchers were interested in the effects of a management by objectives (MBO) program on supervisor job satisfaction. The researchers sent letters to 45 insurance agencies, with between 25 and 35 workers asking, if consultants could design a new MBO program for their organization. Twelve of the companies agreed to accept the consultants’ changes. Consultants worked with management to design model MBO programs and then the companies implemented the MBO programs. The 33 companies who refused to be experimental companies were contacted again and asked to serve as control companies. Out of the 33 companies contacted, 15 agreed to serve as control companies. Control and experimental condition companies were then assessed six months later. The assessment consisted of having supervisors at all companies complete Spector’s Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). Average JSS scores were calculated for each company; and then averages were calculated for all control and experimental group companies. It was found that scores were (statistically) significantly lower at the experimental companies than the control companies. What was the DV? How was it operationalized?

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