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Question: sept 15 1994 huge eruption of kliuchevskoi volcano ash cloud...

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Sept. 15, 1994: Huge eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano. Ash cloud extends 565 km SE Dec. 23, 1995: Shishaldin volcano sends ash over 10 km high Jan. 17,1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake 5000 people killed Jan. 17, 1994: Northridge earthquake damages 100,000 buildings 60 m.y Juan de Fuca Ridge (red) and plate Emperor June 3, 1991: Unzen, Japan volcanic eruption kills 41 people, including 3 geologists chain June 28, 1992: Most n 40 years 40 m.y. Hawaian Islands chainsince ChainKilauea Volcano erupts continuously since 1991 June 12, 1991: Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines eruption kills 1 person; volcanic ash cloud extensive (striped) Enlarged below Kauai H A W AIIAN 4 Nihau Oahu ISLANDS Molokai 2.5 Maui c HA Lanai 1.1 PACIFIC OCEAN Mauna Kea Volcano Average age (millions of years) Hawaii 0.0 Erupting now ic peaks are red on map. Mauna Loa Volcano Kilauea 0 30 60 90 120 150 kmC. What was the rate of motion of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii-Emperor hotspot during the time of active volcanismfrom Kauai to Maui? Remember, we assume that the hot spot plume below the plate remained stationary, and that the plate moved above the plume. Report your answer in mm/yr. [Hint: The velocity in mm/yr is numerically the same as that in km/Ma, since 1 mm-10-6 km, and 1 Anot and less than 500 mm/yr.] - 10-6 Ma. Another hint: the answer should be greater than 50 mm/yr D. What was the general direction of plate motion (i.e., N, NW, SE, etc.) during this time? Bie careful! Think about how the orientation of the hot spot track relates to the motion of the plate over a fixed point. It might help if you held up your hand and pretended it was a plate, then moved the plate over a fixed point (like a finger of your other hand). Check with your neighbor to see if you get the same answer E. Based on the shape of the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount chain, and the age dates of various volcanic islands in the chain, when did the plate change direction over the hot spot? Look at the map of the northern Pacific Ocean (Fig. 2A) F. What was the apparent direction of plate motion before this change? Again, think carefully! It would be a good idea to talk to your fellow students and see if you get the same answer.

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