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Question: when spinorbit interaction and relativistic effects are accounted for quantum...

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When spin-orbit interaction and relativistic effects are accounted for, quantum mechanics predicts that the fine structure of the Balmer-alpha emission line in atomic hydrogen is predicted to comprise the seven transition components shown in the diagram below 3dh 3 n 2 2s In this model the energy levels of the hydrogen atom are given by where Eare the solutions to the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation for the electron in a coulomb potential, and a13theintruture constant (a) Explain qualitatively what is meant by the spin-orbit interaction. Mathematical (b) Explain how the possible values are constructed for the quantum number j, representing (2 marks) 1 mark (e) Why is no transition predicted from the 3dy state to either the 2sy or 2py states? details are not required the total angular momentum of the electron. (2 marks) d) Explain in detail and with suitable experimental diagrams how the technique of laser saturation spectroscopy may be used to observe the individual components. Why is standard high resolution spectroscopy of a gas discharge unable to resolve the four components of different wavelength? (5 marks)

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